Electric Organs and Their Control

@inproceedings{Caputi2005ElectricOA,
  title={Electric Organs and Their Control},
  author={A. Caputi and B. Carlson and O. Macadar},
  year={2005}
}
It has been known for more than 2000 years that some fish can induce painful, numbing sensations when handled. In the late 1600s, it was discovered that this sensation resulted from the production of strong electrical currents produced by the fish (Kellaway 1946). In On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859), Darwin paid special attention to difficulties with his theory, devoting an entire chapter to the subject. The evolution of electrogenesis was one such area of concern… Expand
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The analysis of data from the anatomo-functional study of fish sized between 10 and 300 mm from the species of Gymnotus allowed us to identify three main periods in post-natal development of electrogenesis: before fish reach 55 mm in length, when maturation of neural structures is the main factor determining a characteristic sequence of changes observed in the discharge timing and waveform. Expand
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The primary goal of this volume is to provide an updated perspective on the topics of electrogenesis and electroreception in fishes. Throughout, there is an emphasis on how comparative perspectivesExpand
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Comparable Ages for the Independent Origins of Electrogenesis in African and South American Weakly Electric Fishes
TLDR
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Local vasotocin modulation of the pacemaker nucleus resembles distinct electric behaviors in two species of weakly electric fish
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References

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Electric fish are characterized by specialized organs that generate external fields large compared to those produced by other electrogenic tissue: nerve, muscle, or gland. These organs have evolvedExpand
On the Function and Evolution of Electric Organs in Fish
TLDR
A theory has been proposed which suggests that these fish, by means of their electric pulses, can locate objects if their electrical conductivity differs from that of water, and show striking features of convergent evolution. Expand
Pacemaker activity of the medullary nucleus controlling electric organs in high-frequency gymnotid fish
TLDR
Evidence is presented that these are electrotonically interconnected, and therefore, polarization of a single cell has little effect on the discharge frequency of the whole nucleus (and electric organ), even though spike amplitudes of the single cell are greatly influenced. Expand
Electric signaling behavior and the mechanisms of electric organ discharge production in mormyrid fish
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TLDR
Results suggest that different types of signals may be controlled by distinct components of the electromotor system, similar to findings in other electrogenic teleosts. Expand
The electric organ discharge of pulse gymnotiforms: the transformation of a simple impulse into a complex spatio-temporal electromotor pattern
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An understanding of how the nervous system processes an impulse-like input to yield a stereotyped, species-specific electromotor output is relevant for electric fish physiology, but also forExpand
The phylogenetic distribution of electroreception: Evidence for convergent evolution of a primitive vertebrate sense modality
TLDR
Elasmobranchia, Holocephala, Dipneusti, Crossopterygii, Polypteriformes and Chondrostei have the physiological and anatomical specializations in a common form consistent with a single origin in primitive vertebrates, as well as 3 or 4 independent inventions, presumably from mechanoreceptive lateral line organs and brain centers. Expand
Electroreception in Gymnotus carapo: pre-receptor processing and the distribution of electroreceptor types.
TLDR
The passive properties of the fish tissue represent a pre-receptor device that enhances exafferent and reafferent electrical signals at the fovea-parafoveal region, constituting the most efficient stimulus for electroreceptors. Expand
Mauthner cell-initiated abrupt increase of the electric organ discharge in the weakly electric fish Gymnotus carapo
TLDR
The findings described in the present report indicate the existence of a functional connection between the Mauthner cell and the electromotor system in Gymnotus carapo, and this connection may function to enhance the electrolocative sampling of the environment duringMauthner-cell mediated behaviors. Expand
Ethological observations on the electric organ discharge behaviour of the electric catfish, Malapterurus electricus (Pisces)
TLDR
A hitherto unknown type of Malapterurus EOD activity was discovered: during night-time, volleys consisting of more than 16 EODs were occasionally preceded by a low-frequency train of from 1 to 11 EODS, which was positively correlated with the duration of the ensuing volley. Expand
Rhythmicity as an intrinsic property of the mormyrids electromotor command system
TLDR
It is suggested that peripheral control, achieved through the use of electrosensory feedback, serves to increase the variability of the rhythms of discharge, so that they are adapted to the situation in which the fish participates. Expand
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