Electoral clientelism as status affirmation in Africa: evidence from Ghana*

  title={Electoral clientelism as status affirmation in Africa: evidence from Ghana*},
  author={Elena Gadjanova},
  journal={The Journal of Modern African Studies},
  pages={593 - 621}
  • Elena Gadjanova
  • Published 23 November 2017
  • Political Science
  • The Journal of Modern African Studies
ABSTRACT Why does electoral clientelism persist when ballots are secret and elections are competitive? The provision of material rewards during campaigns is seen as the standard way politicians secure votes in ‘patronage democracies’. Yet monitoring clientelistic bargains is difficult when voting is secret, several competitors may provide material inducements simultaneously, voters view such inducements as gifts and not obligations, and candidates' records are more credible signals of future… 
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