Elections Without Democracy: The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism

  title={Elections Without Democracy: The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism},
  author={Steven Lucan A. Levitsky and Steven Lucan A. Way},
  journal={Journal of Democracy},
  pages={51 - 65}
The post–Cold War world has been marked by the proliferation of hybrid political regimes. In different ways, and to varying degrees, polities across much of Africa (Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe), postcommunist Eurasia (Albania, Croatia, Russia, Serbia, Ukraine), Asia (Malaysia, Taiwan), and Latin America (Haiti, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru) combined democratic rules with authoritarian governance during the 1990s. Scholars often treated these regimes as incomplete or transitional forms… Expand
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