El Niño in a changing climate

  title={El Ni{\~n}o in a changing climate},
  author={Sang‐Wook Yeh and Jong‐Seong Kug and Boris Dewitte and Minho Kwon and Benjamin Kirtman and Fei‐Fei Jin},
El Niño events, characterized by anomalous warming in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, have global climatic teleconnections and are the most dominant feature of cyclic climate variability on subdecadal timescales. Understanding changes in the frequency or characteristics of El Niño events in a changing climate is therefore of broad scientific and socioeconomic interest. Recent studies show that the canonical El Niño has become less frequent and that a different kind of El Niño has become… 
Time-Spatial Features of Mix El Niño
The diversity of El Nino is a critical field of the climate research. The eastern Pacific (EP) and central Pacific (CP) types of El Nino have been identified in the previous studies. However, the
Robust contribution of decadal anomalies to the frequency of central-Pacific El Niño
The results suggest that decadal anomalies have an important contribution to the occurrence of the central-Pacific El Niño over past decades, and removing the decadal component leads to a significant reduction in the frequency of thecentral- Pacific El Niño in observations and in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 simulations of preindustrial, historical and future climate.
The Varied Impacts of El Niño–Southern Oscillation on Pacific Island Climates
AbstractEl Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives interannual climate variability in many tropical Pacific island countries, but different El Nino events might be expected to produce varying
Increased variability of eastern Pacific El Niño under greenhouse warming
A robust increase in future EP-ENSO SST variability among CMIP5 climate models that simulate the two distinct ENSO regimes is found, largely due to greenhouse-warming-induced intensification of upper-ocean stratification in the equatorial Pacific, which enhances ocean–atmosphere coupling.
Spring persistence, transition, and resurgence of El Niño
We present a systematic exploration of differences in the spatiotemporal sea surface temperature (SST) evolution along the equatorial Pacific among observed El Niño events. This inter‐El Niño
Changing effect of El Niño on Antarctic iceberg distribution: From canonical El Niño to El Niño Modoki
Earlier studies indicate that during El Nino events the iceberg concentration increases in the east of the Pacific sector and in the west of the Atlantic sector of Southern Ocean, but decreases in
El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
  • K. Trenberth
  • Environmental Science
    Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences
  • 2019
Interdecadal Relationship between the Mean State and El Niño Types
AbstractThe interdecadal change of the mean state and two types of El Nino was investigated based on the analysis of observational data from 1980 to 2010. It was found that easterly trades and sea
Niño indices for two types of ENSO
El Niño‐Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which dominates variability on interannual timescale in the climate system, is known to exhibit various spatio‐temporal characteristics. Recent studies show that
Super El Niños in response to global warming in a climate model
Extraordinarily strong El Niño events, such as those of 1982/1983 and 1997/1998, cause havoc with weather around the world, adversely influence terrestrial and marine ecosystems in a number of


Anomalous winter climate conditions in the Pacific rim during recent El Niño Modoki and El Niño events
Present work compares impacts of El Niño Modoki and El Niño on anomalous climate in the Pacific rim during boreal winters of 1979–2005. El Niño Modoki (El Niño) is associated with tripole (dipole)
El Niño Modoki and its possible teleconnection
[1] Using observed data sets mainly for the period 1979–2005, we find that anomalous warming events different from conventional El Nino events occur in the central equatorial Pacific. This unique
Indices of El Niño Evolution
Abstract To characterize the nature of El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in different regions of the Pacific have been used. An optimal characterization of
Sensitivity of Australian Rainfall to Inter-El Niño Variations
Australia typically experiences drought during El Nino, especially across the eastern two-thirds of the continent during austral spring (September–November). There have, however, been some
Greenhouse Warming, Decadal Variability, or El Niño? An Attempt to Understand the Anomalous 1990s
The dominant variability modes in the Tropics are investigated and contrasted with the anomalous situation observed during the last few years. The prime quantity analyzed is anomalous sea surface
Two Types of El Nio Events: Cold Tongue El Nio and Warm Pool El Nio
Abstract In this study, two types of El Nino events are classified based on spatial patterns of the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly. One is the cold tongue (CT) El Nino, which can be regarded
El Niño/Southern Oscillation and tropical Pacific climate during the last millennium
Fossil-coral oxygen isotopic records from Palmyra Island are splice together to provide 30–150-year windows of tropical Pacific climate variability within the last 1,100 years, implying that the majority of ENSO variability over the last millennium may have arisen from dynamics internal to the ENSo system itself.
Nonlinearity and Asymmetry of ENSO(.
El Nino events (warm) are often stronger than La Nina events (cold). This asymmetry is an intrinsic nonlinear characteristic of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. In order to measure
Impacts of recent El Niño Modoki on dry/wet conditions in the Pacific rim during boreal summer
Present work uses 1979–2005 monthly observational data to study the impacts of El Niño Modoki on dry/wet conditions in the Pacific rim during boreal summer. The El Niño Modoki phenomenon is
Is El Nino changing?
Apparent changes in the properties of El Nino could reflect the importance of random disturbances, but they could also be a consequence of decadal variations of the background state and the possibility that global warming is affecting those variations cannot be excluded.