El Niño and climate change

  title={El Ni{\~n}o and climate change},
  author={Kevin E. Trenberth and Timothy J. Hoar},
  journal={Geophysical Research Letters},
  • K. Trenberth, T. Hoar
  • Published 1 December 1997
  • Environmental Science
  • Geophysical Research Letters
A comprehensive statistical analysis of how an index of the Southern Oscillation changed from 1882 to 1995 was given by Trenberth and Hoar [1996], with a focus on the unusual nature of the 1990–1995 El Niño‐Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm event in the context of an observed trend for more El Niño and fewer La Niña events after the late 1970s. The conclusions of that study have been challenged by two studies which deal with only the part of our results pertaining to the length of runs of… 
Historical changes in El Niño and La Niña characteristics in an ocean reanalysis
[1] The variation of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events from the mid-nineteenth century until the beginning of the twenty-first century is explored using an ocean reanalysis. A comparison of
Combined effect of El Niño southern oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation on Lake Chad level variability
Abstract In this study, the combined effect of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the Lake Chad (LC) level variability is explored. Our results
Recent trends in the seasonal and temporal behaviour of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation
Trends in the seasonal and temporal behaviour of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation over the period 1958–2007 have been assessed using two indices of the phenomenon, NINO3.4 and a non‐standardised
The evolution of El Nino, past and future
Mechanisms of the 1997–1998 El Niño–La Niña, as inferred from space‐based observations
[1] The intensity of the 1997 El Nino and the 8°C sudden drop in sea surface temperature (SST) around 0°–130°W during the turn into La Nina in 1998 were a surprise to the scientific community. This
El Niño, climate change, and Southern African climate
The El Niño phenomenon involves a large‐scale warming of the equatorial eastern and central Pacific Ocean. Recent developments in the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon have raised
El Niño variability in simple ocean data assimilation (SODA), 1871–2008
[1] A new ocean reanalysis that covers the period from 1871 to 2008 is used to explore the time-evolving characteristics of El Nino. The new reanalysis assimilates all available hydrographic and sea
El Niño and La Niña influence on droughts at different timescales in the Iberian Peninsula
This paper seeks to determine the impact of extreme phases of the Southern Oscillation (SO, El Niño/La Niña) on droughts in the Iberian Peninsula. For this purpose, 51 precipitation series
Weakening of the Walker Circulation and apparent dominance of El Niño both reach record levels, but has ENSO really changed?
Changes in El Niño‐Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Walker Circulation can be routinely monitored using the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). Here we show that the lowest 30‐year average value of
The Climate-Security Teleconnections of El Niño Southern Oscillation
This chapter examines the security implications of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events vis-a-vis climate change. ENSO is briefly described, including how climate change may bring about more


Anomalous ENSO Occurrences : An Alternate View *
There has been an apparent increase in the frequency and duration of El Niño–Southern Oscillation events in the last two decades relative to the prior period of record. Furthermore, 1990–95 was the
Anomalous ENSO Occurrences: An Alternate View*
There has been an apparent increase in the frequency and duration of El Nino-Southern Oscillation events in the last two decades relative to the prior period of record. Furthermore, 1990-95 was the
The 1990–1995 El Niño‐Southern Oscillation Event: Longest on Record
The tendency for more frequent E1 Nifio events America to the International Dateline. It is the basin-scale and fewer La Nifia events since the late 1970's has been phenomenon, however, that is
Recent apparent changes in relationships between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Australian rainfall and temperature
High quality historical temperature and rainfall data sets have been used to produce time series of annual rainfall and temperature, averaged over Australia. The relationships between these series,
Darwin sea level pressure, 1876–1996: Evidence for climate change?
It has been argued that there was a period of prolonged ENSO conditions between 1990–95 so anomalous that it is “highly unlikely” to be due to “natural decadal‐timescale variation” [Trenberth and
Recent Variability in the Southern Oscillation: Isotopic Results from a Tarawa Atoll Coral
Spectral analysis suggests that the distribution of variance in this record has shifted among annual to interannual periods during the present century, concurrent with observed changes in the strength of the Southern Oscillation.
ENSO-like Interdecadal Variability: 1900–93
A number of recent studies have reported an ENSO-like EOF mode in the global sea surface temperature (SST) field, whose time variability is marked by an abrupt change toward a warmer tropical eastern
Signal Versus Noise in the Southern Oscillation
Abstract The utility of a simple index for monitoring the Southern Oscillation signal is explored in detail. Based upon sea level pressure data at the two stations Tahiti (T) and Darwin (D), an
El Niño-like climate change in a model with increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations
SEA surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific Ocean increased on average by serveral tenths of a degree during the 1980s and early 1990s1–4, contributing to the observed global warming during this
Simulated ENSO in a Global Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Model: Multidecadal Amplitude Modulation and CO2 Sensitivity
An analysis is presented of simulated ENSO phenomena occurring in three 1000-yr experiments with a lowresolution (R15) global coupled ocean‐atmosphere GCM. Although the model ENSO is much weaker than