Ejaculate quality and the success of extra-pair copulations in the zebra finch

@article{Birkhead1995EjaculateQA,
  title={Ejaculate quality and the success of extra-pair copulations in the zebra finch},
  author={Tim R. Birkhead and Fiona Fletcher and Elizabeth J. Pellatt and A. Staples},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1995},
  volume={377},
  pages={422-423}
}
IN many passerine birds, sperm competition1,2 is intense and extra-pair paternity frequent3. The outcome of sperm competition is often determined by relative sperm numbers4,5, and theory predicts that males should maximize the number of sperm they ejaculate during extra-pair copulations6,7. Differences in sperm quality between males also affect the outcome of sperm competition4. Here we report that the swimming velocity of sperm of the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, varies predictably within… 
Post-copulatory sexual selection and the Zebra Finch
TLDR
The outcome of sperm competition in the Zebra Finch and other birds is best predicted by the passive sperm loss model, allowing for differences in sperm numbers and quality (fertilising capacity); last male sperm precedence is not a ‘rule’ in birds but is a consequence of the way sperm competition experiments have been conducted.
Patterns of courtship behavior and ejaculate characteristics in male red-winged blackbirds
TLDR
It was found that the recent copulatory behavior of males did not affect the propensity to copulate with a model female, and it was hypothesized that polygyny and sperm competition in this species have combined to select for rapid replenishment of the seminal glomera throughout the day.
Male phenotype and ejaculate quality in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata
TLDR
It was found that female zebra finches paired to a vasectomized male, and hence receiving no sperm, were no more likely to seek an extra-pair copulation than females paired to an intact male.
Strategic allocation of ejaculates by male Adélie penguins
TLDR
It is found that male Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) are more likely to transfer sperm during extra–pair copulations than during pair copulations, and that males that engaged in EPC attempts ejaculated less often when copulating with their social partner than males that made no EPCAttempts.
SOCIAL STATUS AND AVAILABILITY OF FEMALES DETERMINE PATTERNS OF SPERM ALLOCATION IN THE FOWL
TLDR
It is suggested that males have evolved sophisticated patterns of sperm allocation to respond to frequent fluctuations in the value and frequency of reproductive opportunities.
SOCIAL STATUS AND AVAILABILITY OF FEMALES DETERMINE PATTERNS OF SPERM ALLOCATION IN THE FOWL
TLDR
It is suggested that males have evolved sophisticated patterns of sperm allocation to respond to frequent fluctuations in the value and frequency of reproductive opportunites.
Adjustment of copula duration and ejaculate size according to the risk of sperm competition in the golden egg bug (Phyllomorpha laciniata)
TLDR
The adaptive significance of the prolonged copulations in the golden egg bug and the effect of an increased risk of sperm competition on ejaculate investment are explored and predictions derived from sperm competition theory are supported.
Passive Sperm Loss and Patterns of Sperm Precedence in Muscovy Ducks (Cairina moschata)
TLDR
The importance of passive sperm loss in the outcome of sperm competition in captive, wild-type Muscovy Ducks (Cairina moschata) is investigated, with a focus on trials in which a captive female was allowed to mate with two males in succession with either a 24-h or a 72-h lag between matings.
Reproductive biology and sperm competition in Australian fairywrens
TLDR
Fairy-wrens and the other malurids illustrate the complex interactions between social and reproductive behaviors and the intensity of sperm competition and sexual selection in birds.
Sperm competition in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris): an experimental study of mate switching
TLDR
This study evaluates sperm competition in the European starling by means of a mate-switching experiment and finds that the success of extra-pair copulations more than 2 d before egg-laying is probably very low.
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TLDR
It is shown that EPCs occurring under semi-natural conditions in captivity result in extra-pair paternity, and sperm from the last male to mate has precedence over previous matings: a single EPC occurring last is disproportionately successful in fertilizing eggs, butEPCs followed by further pair copulations have a low probability of success.
Sperm precedence in zebra finches does not require special mechanisms of sperm competition
TLDR
It is shown that empirically measured rates of disappearance of sperm from the reproductive tract, and differences in the number of sperm in the first and subsequent ejaculates of each male, are sufficient to account for observed levels of sperm precedence in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata.
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    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
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TLDR
Ejaculation strategies for cases when an opportunist male ‘steals’ a mating with the female of a paired male are examined, an evolutionary game of competitive ejaculation in which two (or more) males mate with the same female.
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The numbers and proportion of spermatozoa reaching different parts of the female reproductive tract after a single natural insemination were investigated in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata. The
SPERM COMPETITION AND ITS EVOLUTIONARY CONSEQUENCES IN THE INSECTS
The possible advantages to a species of internal rather than external fertilization have frequently been stressed, though one important point appears persistently to have escaped comment. In terms of
Sperm Economy in a Coral Reef Fish, Thalassoma Bifasciatum
TLDR
Overall, sperm production is probably sufficiently costly that males have been selected to allocate sperm carefully among their frequent daily spawns.
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Paternal investment inversely related to degree of extra-pair paternity in the reed bunting
TLDR
An exceptionally high proportion of extra-pair paternity is found in a wild population of reed buntings using single-locus DNA fingerprinting and it is proposed that males can assess their likelihood of paternity and adjust their nestling provisioning rates accordingly.
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TLDR
It appears that the relationship between sperm ratios and the proportions of offspring sired by two males competing heterospermically is dependent on the ratio of the number of competing spermatozoa but not on total number, season, breed of hen or the interval from insemination to fertilization.
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