Egocentrism over e-mail: can we communicate as well as we think?

@article{Kruger2005EgocentrismOE,
  title={Egocentrism over e-mail: can we communicate as well as we think?},
  author={Justin Kruger and Nicholas Epley and Jason Parker and Zhi-Wen Ng},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={2005},
  volume={89 6},
  pages={
          925-36
        }
}
Without the benefit of paralinguistic cues such as gesture, emphasis, and intonation, it can be difficult to convey emotion and tone over electronic mail (e-mail). Five experiments suggest that this limitation is often underappreciated, such that people tend to believe that they can communicate over e-mail more effectively than they actually can. Studies 4 and 5 further suggest that this overconfidence is born of egocentrism, the inherent difficulty of detaching oneself from one's own… 

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