Egas Moniz (1874-1955) and the "invention" of modern psychosurgery: a historical and ethical reanalysis under special consideration of Portuguese original sources.

@article{Gross2011EgasM,
  title={Egas Moniz (1874-1955) and the "invention" of modern psychosurgery: a historical and ethical reanalysis under special consideration of Portuguese original sources.},
  author={Dominik Gross and Gereon Sch{\"a}fer},
  journal={Neurosurgical focus},
  year={2011},
  volume={30 2},
  pages={
          E8
        }
}
The Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz (1874-1955) is often regarded as the founder of psychosurgery. He performed the first prefrontal leukotomy in 1935—about 75 years ago—with the help of neurosurgeon Almeida Lima (1903–1985) [corrected]. In contrast to the psychosurgical interventions performed by the Swiss psychiatrist Gottlieb Burckhardt (1836-1907), Moniz's interventions on the white brain substance caught great attention worldwide. As a matter of fact, it was this repercussion that led to… 

Figures from this paper

[Egas Moniz: a genius, unlucky looser or a Nobel committee error?].

Portuguese neurologist António Egas Moniz was an exceptionally colourful person, a merited politician, Portuguese minister of foreign affairs, the head of its delegation at Versailles in 1918, in 1951 he was even proposed a position of a President of Portugal.

A Controversial Past

The success of deep brain stimulation, a new reversible and adaptable therapy devised for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, has offered the hope of new forms of treatment for patients with severe psychiatric disorders like OCD, and these new neuromodulation-based treatments are reshaping the field of psychosurgery.

History of psychosurgery at Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France, through translational interactions between psychiatrists and neurosurgeons.

The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital's Neurosurgery Department sheds light on the initiation-yet fast reconsideration-of psychosurgery in France, which was probably due to the historically strong collaboration between psychiatrists and neurosurgeons in France.

The early argument for prefrontal leucotomy: the collision of frontal lobe theory and psychosurgery at the 1935 International Neurological Congress in London.

The authors review the relevant events related to frontal lobe theory leading up to the 1935 Neurological Congress as well as the extent of this meeting's role in the genesis of the modern era of psychosurgery.

Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric conditions: A return to the dark ages or a revolution in treatment?

The objective of this paper is to briefly outline the history of psychosurgery and DBS, to mention the current indications for DBS in the treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions, and to outline the role of the medical professional in the successful implementation of this technology.

A Book Review of the Lobotomist: A Maverick Medical Genius and His Tragic Quest to Rid the World of Mental Illness by Jack El-Hai

Review of book: Jack El-Hai, The Lobotomist: A Maverick Medical Genius and His Tragic Quest to Rid the World of Mental Illness. Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley, 2005, 362 pp. ISBN: 0470098309 (ISBN13:

A Transnational Perspective on Psychosurgery: Beyond Portugal and the United States

  • B. CollinsH. Stam
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of the history of the neurosciences
  • 2014
One of the first transnational accounts of psychosurgery is provided to demonstrate the existence of a global psychosurgical community in which more than 40 countries participated, bolstered, critiqued, modified and heralded the treatment.

Egas Moniz: 90 Years (1927–2017) from Cerebral Angiography

Despite his tremendous contribution in modern brain imaging, Egas Moniz was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1949 for prefrontal leucotomy, the neurosurgical intervention nowadays unacceptable, but should rather be remembered for his key contribution to modern brain Imaging.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 58 REFERENCES

[Contribution of Gottlieb Burckhardt (1836-1907) to psychosurgery from the medical history and ethical viewpoint].

  • D. Gross
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Gesnerus
  • 1998
The life of Gottlieb Burckhardt is illuminated as well as his contribution to psychosurgery, and special attention is paid to the ethical aspects of his operative interventions.

[Gottlieb Burckhardt's (1836-1907) contribution to psychosurgery: medicohistorical and ethical aspects].

  • D. Gross
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Gesnerus
  • 1998
The life of Gottlieb Burckhardt is illuminated as well as his contribution to psychosurgery, and special attention is paid to the ethical aspects of his operative interventions.

[Egas Moniz and the leukotomy debate with special reference to Portuguese literature].

The present article concentrates on both the Portuguese and the international perception of Moniz' lobotomy and its apparent ethical implications.

Egas Moniz and the Origins of Psychosurgery: A Review Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of Moniz's Nobel Prize

  • A. Tierney
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of the history of the neurosciences
  • 2000
Moniz's career, the factors that led up to his first clinical trials of frontal lobe surgery, and the circumstances that allowed psychosurgery to flourish in the 1940s, eventually leading to Moniz's Nobel Prize are reviewed.

Modern psychosurgery before Egas Moniz: a tribute to Gottlieb Burckhardt.

Although Burckhardt discontinued the project after publication of his surgical results in 1891, neurosurgeons around the world continued to investigate psychosurgery and revitalized his ideas in 1910; psychosURgery subsequently developed into a full-fledged neurosurgical specialty.

Gottlieb Burckhardt and Egas Moniz--two beginnings of psychosurgery.

The adoption of psychosurgery was due to the interest in mental illness of nonpsychiatrists--neurologists and neurosurgeons--, and the arrival of the new treatment marks a change in the professional configuration of those who treat psychiatric afflictions.

Psychosurgery. Intelligence, Emotion and Social Behavior Following Prefrontal Lobotomy for Mental Disorders

  • W. J. German
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
  • 1942
The reader is faced with rather conflicting evidence concerning frontal-lobe functions, which becomes more clearly correlated, as the result of the present studies, and finally emerges in the concluding chapters of the book as a well-rounded story of frontal lobe functions.

Frontal leukotomy and related psychosurgical procedures in the era before antipsychotics (1935-1954): a historical overview.

  • V. Swayze
  • Medicine, Psychology
    The American journal of psychiatry
  • 1995
The history of psychosurgery illustrates the importance of critical evaluation of new treatments in the context of long-term controlled outcome studies, the natural course of specific illnesses, and an understanding of brain physiology.

Psychosurgery: a historical overview.

A better understanding of the colorful history of psychosurgery should enable modern neurosurgeons and other health care professionals to meet the social, ethical, and technical challenges that are sure to lie ahead.
...