Volume Preserved Mass–Spring Model with Novel Constraints for Soft Tissue Deformation
Cuts on deformable organs are a central task in the set of physical operations needed in many surgical simulation environments. Our BioMedIA surgical simulator structures are Finite Element Models, driven by displacements on the touched nodes as opposed to forces. This approach allows for realistic simulation of both deformation and haptic response at real-time rates. The integration of condensation into our system increases its efficiency, and allows for complex interaction on larger meshes than would normally be permitted with available memory. We present an extension of our novel algorithm for cuts in deformable organs, in the context of condensed matrices. We show results from our surgical simulation system with real-time haptic feedback.