In this paper, we propose a new feedback scheme called mode selection-based feedback by scheduling probability prediction (SPP-MF) for channel state feedback in OFDMA downlink system. We design the scheme such that it determines the more desirable feedback mode among selective feedback by scheduling probability prediction (SPP-SF) mode and bitmap feedback by scheduling probability prediction (SPP-BF) mode, by calculating and comparing the throughputs of the two modes. In both feedback modes, each user first calculates the scheduling probability of each subchannel (i.e., the probability that a user wins the scheduling competition for a subchannel) and then forms a feedback message based on the scheduling probability. Specifically, in the SPP-SF mode, each user reports the modulation and coding scheme (MCS) levels and indices of its best S subchannels in terms of the scheduling probability. In the SPP-BF mode, each user determines its scheduling probability threshold. Then, it forms a bitmap for the subchannels according to the scheduling probability threshold and sends the bitmap along with the threshold. Numerical results reveal that the proposed SPP-MF scheme achieves significant performance gain over the existing feedback schemes.