Efficient Bipedal Robots Based on Passive-Dynamic Walkers

  title={Efficient Bipedal Robots Based on Passive-Dynamic Walkers},
  author={Steven H. Collins and Andy Ruina and Russ Tedrake and Martijn Wisse},
  pages={1082 - 1085}
Passive-dynamic walkers are simple mechanical devices, composed of solid parts connected by joints, that walk stably down a slope. They have no motors or controllers, yet can have remarkably humanlike motions. This suggests that these machines are useful models of human locomotion; however, they cannot walk on level ground. Here we present three robots based on passive-dynamics, with small active power sources substituted for gravity, which can walk on level ground. These robots use less… 
Toward a human-like biped robot with compliant legs
Control of Bipedal Walking Exploiting Postural Reflexes and Passive Dynamics
Results show an efficient, fluent, and fast walking gait that can cope with considerable disturbances and the exploitation of passive dynamics, no usage of a full dynamic model, and hierarchical, distributed control.
A Bipedal Walking Robot with Efficient and Human-Like Gait
  • S. Collins, A. Ruina
  • Biology, Engineering
    Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
  • 2005
A passive-dynamic based, fully autonomous, 3-D, bipedal walking robot that uses simple control, consumes little energy, and has human-like morphology and gait is presented.
Optimal gait primitives for dynamic bipedal locomotion
  • B. Lim, Jusuk Lee, K. Roh
  • Engineering
    2012 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
  • 2012
This paper presents a framework to generate dynamic walking for biped robots by representing parametric gait primitives, utilizing state-dependent torque control, and doing numerical optimization that takes into account the complex multi-body dynamics with frictional contact forces.
Passive Dynamic Walking with Symmetric Fixed Flat Feet
Biped robots are inherently hybrid systems due to their intermittent, switching dynamics resulting from foot/ground impacts. It is well known that stable (passive) limit cycles for such mechanisms
Level-Ground Walk Based on Passive Dynamic Walking for a Biped Robot with Torso
This study presents a design technique of an efficient biped walking robot on level ground with a simple mechanism based on passive-dynamic walking. A torso is used to generate active power replacing
Hybrid Zero Dynamics of Planar Bipedal Walking
This chapter highlights the fundamental role of zero dynamics in obtaining truly dynamic walking gaits that include underactuated phases.
Development of Multi-legged Passive Dynamic Walking Robot
This research realizes and analyze Multi-legged Passive Dynamic Walking(PDW). Although various PDW studies have been conducted based on its interesting features, most of them dealt with bipedal
Dynamic Walking on Uneven Terrains with Passivity-Based Bipedal Robots
Satisfactory results of simulations and real robot experiments show that the passivity-based walker can achieve stable bipedal walking with larger ground disturbance by the proposed method in view of stability and efficiency.
Uphill and level walking of a three-dimensional biped quasi-passive walking robot by torso control
A novel control strategy based on forced entrainment to stabilize a three-dimensional quasi-passive walking robot in uphill and level walking by using torso control in the frontal plane and synchronization of lateral motion with swing leg motion is proposed.


Dynamics and control of bipedal locomotion.
  • T. McGeer
  • Biology
    Journal of theoretical biology
  • 1993
Analytical study reveals that any of several simple control strategies are effective for rehabilitation and robot design, which helps to explain why dextrous and efficient walking is so easy to a child to master and suggests that rehabilitation and robots may be less difficult than one might at first imagine.
Passive Dynamic Walking
The dynamics are most clearly demonstrated by a machine powered only by gravity, but they can be combined easily with active energy input to produce efficient and dextrous walking over a broad range of terrain.
A Three-Dimensional Passive-Dynamic Walking Robot with Two Legs and Knees
The authors have built the first three-dimensional, kneed, two-legged, passive-dynamic walking machine, which further implicates passive dynamics in human walking and may help point the way toward simple and efficient robots with human-like motions.
Exploiting inherent robustness and natural dynamics in the control of bipedal walking robots
This thesis achieves three-dimensional walking by adding lateral balance to the planar algorithm and exploits the natural dynamics of a kneecap, compliant ankle, and passive swing-leg to enable the robot to walk quickly.
Energetics of actively powered locomotion using the simplest walking model.
  • A. Kuo
  • Engineering
    Journal of biomechanical engineering
  • 2002
Simulations incorporating nonlinear equations of motion and more realistic inertial parameters show that power laws relating the toe-off impulses and effective spring constant to the speed and step length of the corresponding gait apply to more complex models as well.
Mechanical work for step-to-step transitions is a major determinant of the metabolic cost of human walking.
Mechanical work for step-to-step transitions, rather than pendular motion itself, appears to be a major determinant of the metabolic cost of walking.
Optimal feedback control as a theory of motor coordination
This work shows that the optimal strategy in the face of uncertainty is to allow variability in redundant (task-irrelevant) dimensions, and proposes an alternative theory based on stochastic optimal feedback control, which emerges naturally from this framework.
Muscle and tendon: properties, models, scaling, and application to biomechanics and motor control.
  • F. Zajac
  • Biology, Engineering
    Critical reviews in biomedical engineering
  • 1989
Their integrated ability to generate force statically and dynamically is studied by formulating a generic model of the "musculotendon actuator", which has only one parameter, the ratio of tendon length at rest to muscle fiberlength at rest.
The biomechanics and motor control of human gait
In a sodium-sulphur battery cell of tubular form, the sulphur compartment is provided inside a tubular solid electrolyte and a carbon current collector extends into the sodium compartment.