Efficient Bipedal Robots Based on Passive-Dynamic Walkers

@article{Collins2005EfficientBR,
  title={Efficient Bipedal Robots Based on Passive-Dynamic Walkers},
  author={Steven H. Collins and Andy Ruina and Russ Tedrake and Martijn Wisse},
  journal={Science},
  year={2005},
  volume={307},
  pages={1082 - 1085}
}
Passive-dynamic walkers are simple mechanical devices, composed of solid parts connected by joints, that walk stably down a slope. They have no motors or controllers, yet can have remarkably humanlike motions. This suggests that these machines are useful models of human locomotion; however, they cannot walk on level ground. Here we present three robots based on passive-dynamics, with small active power sources substituted for gravity, which can walk on level ground. These robots use less… 
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