Efficacy of transdermal estradiol.

  • H M Judd
  • Published 1987 in American journal of obstetrics and gynecology


Several side effects and risks associated with estrogen replacement therapy are known to stem from the hormone's impact on the liver. With oral administration, the enhanced action at hepatic, as compared with nonhepatic, sites is presumably related to the so-called first-pass effect. Attempts have been made to avoid this action by administering estrogen… (More)


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