Efficacy of piracetam in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study.

BACKGROUND Piracetam is a potent antioxidant, a cerebral neuroprotector, a neuronal metabolic enhancer, and a brain integrative agent. More than 20 years ago, an intravenous preparation of piracetam demonstrated an improvement in the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia. The aim of our study was to reexamine the efficacy of piracetam in the treatment of tardive… (More)