Efficacy of Bear Deterrent Spray in Alaska

@inproceedings{Smith2008EfficacyOB,
  title={Efficacy of Bear Deterrent Spray in Alaska},
  author={Tom S. Smith and Stephen M. Herrero and Terry D. Debruyn and James M. Wilder},
  year={2008}
}
Abstract We present a comprehensive look at a sample of bear spray incidents that occurred in Alaska, USA, from 1985 to 2006. We analyzed 83 bear spray incidents involving brown bears (Ursus arctos; 61 cases, 74%), black bears (Ursus americanus; 20 cases, 24%), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus; 2 cases, 2%). Of the 72 cases where persons sprayed bears to defend themselves, 50 (69%) involved brown bears, 20 (28%) black bears, and 2 (3%) polar bears. Red pepper spray stopped bears' undesirable… Expand

Topics from this paper

Efficacy of firearms for bear deterrence in Alaska
We compiled, summarized, and reviewed 269 incidents of bear-human conflict involving firearms that occurred in Alaska during 1883-2009. Encounters involving brown bears (Ursus arctos; 218 incidents,Expand
Fatal Attacks by American Black Bear on People: 1900–2009
ABSTRACT At least 63 people were killed in 59 incidents by non-captive black bear (Ursus americanus) during 1900–2009. Fatal black bear attacks occurred in Canada and Alaska (n = 49) and in theExpand
Brown bear (Ursus arctos) attacks resulting in human casualties in Scandinavia 1977–2016; management implications and recommendations
TLDR
Bear physiology at denning may make encounters with bears more risky in the fall, when bears show prehibernation behavior, and awareness and education efforts, especially among hunters, seem important to ensure human safety. Expand
Human–Brown Bear Conflicts in Artvin, Northeastern Turkey: Encounters, Damage, and Attitudes
TLDR
It is proposed that introduction and implementation of modern techniques of exclusion such as portable electric fences around valuable resources (e.g. bee yards), improvements in bear awareness, and effective cooperation among various stakeholders would reduce human–bear conflict to acceptable levels in the region. Expand
RESIDENTIAL PERCEPTIONS OF BROWN AND BLACK BEARS AND HUMAN-BEAR CONFLICT MITIGATION ON THE KENAI PENINSULA OF ALASKA
The Kenai Peninsula of Alaska has experienced a drastic increase in the number of conflicts between humans and bears that result in bear kills in defense of life or property (DLP). Research is neededExpand
Potential for recreational restrictions to reduce grizzly bear–caused human injuries
Abstract: In 2011, 2 hikers were killed by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in separate incidents on backcountry trails in Hayden Valley, Yellowstone National Park, USA (YNP). Hayden Valley providesExpand
Portable Electric Fencing for Bear Deterrence and Conservation
Although bear-inflicted (Ursus spp.) human fatalities are rare in North America, human injuries, property damage, and bear mortalities occur wherever bears and humans commingle. We investigated theExpand
Human injuries and fatalities caused by brown bears in Russia, 1932–2017
We compiled, summarized and reviewed 338 cases of people killed or injured by brown bears from 1932 to 2017 in Russia, home of about half of the world's brown bears. During the Soviet period,Expand
Variation and conservation implications of the effectiveness of anti-bear interventions
TLDR
A meta-analysis of 77 cases used the relative risk of damage to compare the effectiveness of non-invasive interventions, invasive management (translocations) and lethal control (shooting) against bears and did not find relationships between bear density and intervention effectiveness. Expand
Polar bear attacks on humans: Implications of a changing climate
Understanding causes of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) attacks on humans is critical to ensuring both human safety and polar bear conservation. Although considerable attention has been focused onExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 26 REFERENCES
Human injuries inflicted by bears in Alberta : 1960 – 98
Between 1960 and 1998, bears caused 42 serious or fatal human injuries in the Province of Alberta—29 (69%) by grizzly (brown) bears (Ursus arctos) and 13 (31%) by American black bears (U.Expand
HUMAN INJURIES INFLICTED BY BEARS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA : 1960-97
There is controversy in British Columbia regarding how dangerous bears are. Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population estimates range from 10,000–13,000; black bears (U. americanus), 120,000–160,000.Expand
CHARACTERISTICS OF NONSPORT MORTALITIES TO BROWN AND BLACK BEARS AND HUMAN INJURIES FROM BEARS IN ALASKA
We examined the reasons bears are reported killed in defense of life or property (DLP) in Alaska as an index to causes and frequency of conflicts between humans and bears, and compared the sex andExpand
Attraction of brown bears to red pepper spray deterrent: Caveats for use
Herrero and Higgins (1998) found that red pepper spray was effective in halting aggressive brown bear behavior in 88% (14 of 16) of incidents studied. However, red pepper spray is not claimed to be aExpand
SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF LOCATIONS OF BROWN BEARS KILLED IN DEFENSE OF LIFE OR PROPERTY ON THE KENAI PENINSULA , ALASKA , USA
The number of brown bears (Ursus arctos) killed in defense of life or property (DLP) on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, has been of increasing concern for natural resource managers. During the 1960s, 8Expand
REACTIONS OF FREE-RANGING BLACK BEARS TO CAPSAICIN SPRAY REPELLENT
A bear repellent is needed that is effective, humane, and can be carried easily by hikers and campers. Of several chemical sprays that have been tested on caged bears, the most favorable results haveExpand
Human Injury Inflicted by Grizzly Bears
TLDR
Fifty-seven attacks in which 61 persons were injured took place in three national parks in the United States and accounted for 79 percent of the known injuries and gives an injury rate of 1 person per 2 million visitors. Expand
Education programs for reducing American black bear–human conflict: indicators of success?
Abstract Education programs designed to reduce conflicts between American black bears (Ursus americanus) and humans are often implemented by diverse groups of wildlife practitioners who may devoteExpand
Review of oleoresin capsicum (pepper) sprays for self‐defense against captive wildlife
TLDR
Pepper (oleoresin capsicum) sprays appear to be a “less-than-lethal” option for repelling attacks by captive wildlife but some highly motivated animals may not be sufficiently incapacitated by the physiological effects of pepper spray on mucous membranes, and may also be able to override any sensations of pain. Expand
Choosing and Using Statistics: A Biologist's Guide, 2nd edition
TLDR
This relatively slim volume provides practical instructions for selecting statistical tests and carrying them out using any of three different computer packages: SPSS, MINITAB, and Excel. Expand
...
1
2
3
...