A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of maize/peanut intercropping on the rhizosphere soil microbial community and nutrient contents. Three treatments were installed, i. e., maize/peanut intercropping, maize monoculture, and peanut monoculture. Comparing with monoculture, intercropping could significantly increase the quantity of soil bacteria in both maize and peanut root areas. The numbers of soil actinomyces and fungi had no significant differences in the root areas of intercropped and mono-cultured peanut, but were much higher in intercropped than in mono-cultured maize root area. The functional diversity and metabolic activity of soil microbial community also improved under intercropping. Maize/peanut intercropping increased the soil alkali-hydrolysable N, available P and organic matter contents and EC to some extent, especially in the root area of maize. All the results suggested that maize/peanut intercropping could obviously improve the status of soil microbes and nutrients in root areas, which in turn, would promote the growth of intercropped crops.