Effects of warming up, massage, and stretching on range of motion and muscle strength in the lower extremity

  title={Effects of warming up, massage, and stretching on range of motion and muscle strength in the lower extremity},
  author={Margareta Wiktorsson-Moller and Birgitta {\"O}berg and Jan Ekstrand and Jan Gillquist},
  journal={The American Journal of Sports Medicine},
  pages={249 - 252}
The effects of general warming up, massage, and stretching on ranges of motion (ROM) and strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles were measured in eight male volunteers. Thigh muscle strength was not influenced by the experimental procedures. Stretching resulted in a significantly increased range of hip flexion/ extension, hip abduction, knee flexion, and ankle dor siflexion; the effect was significantly greater than that obtained by massage and warming up separately or combined. Only ankle… 
The effect of heat and stretching on the range of hip motion*.
Stretching increased flexion and external rotation, and heat plus stretching in combination gave the greatest increase in flexion motion, and also significantly increased abduction.
Duration of stretching effect on range of motion in lower extremities.
The duration of the effect of contract-relax stretching on range of motion (ROM) in the lower extremities was measured on eight male volunteers and there was a significant increase in hip abduction, knee flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion with knee straight.
The effect of time on static stretch on the flexibility of the hamstring muscles.
The results of this study suggest that a duration of 30 seconds is an effective time of stretching for enhancing the flexibility of the hamstring muscles.
The warm-up procedure: to stretch or not to stretch. A brief review.
  • C. A. Smith
  • Medicine
    The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy
  • 1994
A proposed model stretching regime is presented based on the literature reviewed and implications of stretching on muscle/tendon flexibility, minimizing injury, enhancing athletic performance, and generally preparing the athlete for exercise are discussed.
Repeated passive stretching: acute effect on the passive muscle moment and extensibility of short hamstrings.
The acute effect of repeated passive stretching of short hamstring muscles is negligible and with an instrumental straight-leg raising test, the relevant muscle variables can be examined noninvasively.
Stretching: Mechanisms and Benefits for Sport Performance and Injury Prevention
Most stretching techniques (static, ballistic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) are effective in increasing static flexibility, but the results for dynamic flexibility as measured by active and passive stiffness, are inconclusive.
Effect of Warm-up Prior to Maximal Grip Contractions
The increase in grip strength due to warm-up was statistically and clinically significant (an increase of about 1 standard deviation) and the hypothesis that subjects who engaged in mildwarm-up exercises would have higher maximal grip force than would subjects with no warm-ups was supported.
The effect of stretching duration on the lower-extremity flexibility of adolescent soccer players
It is suggested that one 30-s static stretch of the lower-extremity muscles produced the same effect as two 15-s or six 5-s stretches during a flexibility-training session involving adolescent soccer players.
The effects of dynamic stretching on plantar flexor muscle-tendon tissue properties.
Dynamic stretching of the plantar flexors was shown to be effective in increasing ankle joint flexibility and a significant displacement of the MTJ was found, indicating some change in the tendon tissues.
The role of stretching in rehabilitation of hamstring injuries: 80 athletes follow-up.
The results suggest that stretching is of great importance in treating muscle strain injuries in that it improves the effectiveness of the rest rehabilitation program.


Lower extremity goniometric measurements: a study to determine their reliability.
Two series of healthy men were measured for range of passive motion of hip flexion, hip extension, hip abduction, knee flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion with the knee extended and flexed. Hip abduction
The frequency of muscle tightness and injuries in soccer players
Football players were in general less flexible than a group of nonplayers of the same age (n = 86), and no correlation was found between past injuries and ex isting muscle tightness.
Prevention of soccer injuries
It is concluded that the pro posed prophylactic program, including close supervi sion and correction by doctors and physiotherapists, significantly reduces soccer injuries.
Lower Extremities Are Site of Most Soccer Injuries.
ISSN: 0091-3847 (Print) 2326-3660 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ipsm20 Lower Extremities Are Site of Most Soccer Injuries E. T. Pardon MD, PA To cite this article: E. T.