Effects of vitamin D supplements on bone mineral density: a systematic review and meta-analysis

@article{Reid2014EffectsOV,
  title={Effects of vitamin D supplements on bone mineral density: a systematic review and meta-analysis},
  author={Ian R. Reid and Mark J. Bolland and Andrew Grey},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={2014},
  volume={383},
  pages={146-155}
}
The Effect of Calcium or Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Males: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
TLDR
Limited evidence appears to support the use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation for improving BMD in older males, and there is a need for high quality randomized controlled trials, especially in younger and middle-aged male cohorts and athletic populations to determine whether supplementation provides a preventative benefit.
The combination effect of vitamin K and vitamin D on human bone quality: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
TLDR
The combination of vitamin K and D can significantly increase the total BMD and significantly decrease undercarboxylated osteocalcin, and a more favorable effect is expected when vitamin K2 is used.
25‐Hydroxyvitamin D Threshold for the Effects of Vitamin D Supplements on Bone Density: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial
TLDR
It is concluded that vitamin D supplements only increase bone density in adults with nadir 25OHD ≤30 nmol/L, which moves us further toward a trial‐based definition of vitamin D deficiency in Adults with adequate calcium intakes and suggests that supplement use should be targeted accordingly.
Calcium intake and bone mineral density: systematic review and meta-analysis
TLDR
Increasing calcium intake from dietary sources or by taking calcium supplements produces small non-progressive increases in BMD, which are unlikely to lead to a clinically significant reduction in risk of fracture.
Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Turnover Markers: A Randomized Controlled Trial
TLDR
In hypertensive patients with low 25(OH)D levels, it is observed that no significant effect of vitamin D supplementation for eight weeks on BTMs is observed, and this is a post-hoc analysis of the Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial.
Randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in older people to optimize bone health
TLDR
There was no difference in change in BMD over 12 mo between the 3 doses of vitamin D, suggesting no effect of the intervention or a similar attenuation of the anticipated decrease in B MD over 12Mo.
The effect of high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on bone mineral density in subjects with prediabetes
TLDR
Vitamin D3 supplementation alone may be beneficial in males with prediabetes, but confirmatory studies are needed.
Vitamin D supplementation and fracture risk in adults: a new insight
TLDR
Skeleton adaptation to mechanical loading implies that higher doses of vitamin D supplementation would be unlikely to significantly improve muscle function associated with an increase in daily mechanical loads, suggesting that mechanical loading from physical activity, rather than circulating levels of 25hydroxyvitamin D, is directly related to areal BMD.
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References

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No significant effect on bone mineral density by high doses of vitamin D3 given to overweight subjects for one year
TLDR
Supplementation with high doses of vitamin D for one year does not appear to have a negative effect on BMD in healthy subjects, and no significant differences were found between the three groups regarding change in BMD, serum OPG or RANKL.
A pooled analysis of vitamin D dose requirements for fracture prevention.
TLDR
Benefits at the highest level of vitamin D intake were fairly consistent across subgroups defined by age group, type of dwelling, baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and additional calcium intake, and high-dose vitamin D supplementation was somewhat favorable in the prevention of hip fracture and any nonvertebral fracture in persons 65 years of age or older.
A Randomized Controlled Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation on Preventing Postmenopausal Bone Loss and Modifying Bone Metabolism Using Identical Twin Pairs
  • D. Hunter, P. Major, T. Spector
  • Medicine
    Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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TLDR
On the basis of these results, vitamin D supplementation, on its own, cannot be recommended routinely as an osteoporosis prevention for healthy postmenopausal women with normal vitamin D levels under the age of 70 years.
Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
TLDR
Oral vitamin D supplementation between 700 to 800IU/d appears to reduce the risk of hip and any nonvertebral fractures in ambulatory or institutionalized elderly persons and an oral vitamin D dose of 400 IU/d is not sufficient for fracture prevention.
VIII: Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Vitamin D Treatment in Preventing Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women
TLDR
Vitamin D decreases vertebral fractures and may decrease nonvertebral fractures, and the available data are uninformative regarding the relative effects of standard and hydroxylated vitamin D.
Effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on hip bone mineral density and calcium-related analytes in elderly ambulatory Australian women: a five-year randomized controlled trial.
TLDR
Addition of vitamin D to calcium has long-term beneficial effects on bone density in elderly women living in a sunny climate, probably mediated by a long- term reduction in bone turnover rate.
Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Calcium With or Without Vitamin D on Bone Structure and Bone‐Related Chemistry in Elderly Women With Vitamin D Insufficiency
TLDR
In patients with a baseline calcium intake of 1100 mg/d and vitamin D insufficiency, vitamin D2 1000 IU for 1 year has no extra beneficial effect on bone structure, bone formation markers, or intestinal calcium absorption over an additional 1000 mg of calcium.
Vitamin D supplementation and bone mineral density in early postmenopausal women.
TLDR
In younger postmenopausal women whose average baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was well within the normal range, the addition of 10 000 U vitamin D(2)/wk to calcium supplementation at 1000 mg/d did not confer benefits on BMD beyond those achieved with calcium supplementation alone.
Effectiveness and safety of vitamin D in relation to bone health.
TLDR
The largest body of evidence on vitamin D status and bone health was in older adults with a lack of studies in premenopausal women and infants, children and adolescents, and there was fair evidence of an association between low circulating 25(OH)D concentrations and established rickets.
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