Effects of twinning on gestation length, retained placenta, and dystocia.

@article{Echternkamp1999EffectsOT,
  title={Effects of twinning on gestation length, retained placenta, and dystocia.},
  author={Sherrill E. Echternkamp and Keith E. Gregory},
  journal={Journal of animal science},
  year={1999},
  volume={77 1},
  pages={
          39-47
        }
}
Constraints to maximal productivity from twinning in beef cattle include increased incidence of dystocia and retained placenta, longer postpartum interval, and lower conception rate. Incidence and cause(s) of the shorter gestation length and of the increased retained placenta and dystocia associated with twinning were evaluated for 3,370 single and 1,014 twin births produced in a population of cattle selected for natural twin births. Gestation length was shorter for twin than for single… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Effects of twinning on postpartum reproductive performance in cattle selected for twin births.

TLDR
Despite the lower conception rates for dams of twins, the increased prolificacy provides an opportunity to increase total beef production with a twinning technology.

Increased calf production in cattle selected for twin ovulations.

TLDR
Although most bovine females have the uterine capacity to gestate twin calves, decreased survival and BW of unilateral twins and of all triplets indicate that their growth and development may have been compromised by uterine crowding.

Effect of twin vs. single births on gestation length, reproductive performance, dystocia, calf survival rate and culling in Holstein cows

TLDR
Twinning in cattle shortens the length of gestation, impairs subsequent reproductive performance by prolonging postpartum breeding intervals, increases the incidence of dystocia and perinatal calf mortality and increases number of cows to be culled during subsequent lactation.

Effects of ovulation rate and fetal number on fertility in twin-producing cattle.

TLDR
Increased calf production from selecting for increased ovulation rate in beef cattle is tempered by increased fetal mortality, partially associated with the crowding of 2 or 3 fetuses within 1 uterine horn, especially in heifers.

Pregnancy and stillbirth losses in dairy cows with singleton and twin pregnancies.

TLDR
Pregnancy loss did not differ between singleton- and twin-carrying animals either between days 57-70 of gestation or at drying-off, and in twin pregnancies there was no difference in the pregnancy losses between bilateral and unilateral pregnancies at any time point.

Gestation length in Holstein cow depends on the number and sex of fetuses

The traditional calculation of gestation length (GL) in Holstein cows relies solely on the insemination day and has a high error rate for actual calving dates. The present study was conducted to

CONCOMITANT FACTORS AFFECTING GESTATION LENGTH AND PERINATAL MORTALITY IN HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN COWS

TLDR
Parity and twinning were the major factors which influenced simultaneously gestation length of dams and perinatal mortality incidence in Holstein-Frisian dams and should be considered for reproductive management programs of dairy herds.

Benefits and Risks of Preventing Twin Pregnancies

TLDR
The clinical prospects of preventing or avoiding twin pregnancies using both procedures are discussed and embryo survival should improve, economic losses associated with twin pregnancies will be prevented, beef output from the herd will be increased, and the health and welfare of the cow will certainly benefit.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 38 REFERENCES

Twinning in cattle: III. Effects of twinning on dystocia, reproductive traits, calf survival, calf growth and cow productivity.

TLDR
Identification of cows gestating twins to provide for their higher prepartum nutritive requirements and calving assistance at parturition is necessary to make twinning in cattle an economically viable technology.

Effects of twinning on dystocia, calf survival, calf growth, carcass traits, and cow productivity.

TLDR
This paper reports results from a long-term experiment to increase twinning rate in cattle at the Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, finding that steers from the Twinning Project gained significantly faster and produced significantly more desirable carcasses than a sample of Steers from a high performance reference population.

Embryo-transfer twinning and performance efficiency in beef production.

TLDR
Estimated integrated herd costs per unit of age-constant output value would be lower for T than for S production by about 24% for marketing either at weaning or at 400 d, assuming 40% higher veterinary and labor costs for twins.

Induction of twins in different breeds of cattle.

TLDR
The results of these experiments indicate that both beef heifers and beef cows of three common breed types are capable of maintaining twin pregnancies and successfully producing twins.

Fetal development in cattle with multiple ovulations.

TLDR
It is suggested that ovulation rate is the first limiting factor to increasing cow productivity for beef cattle because some bovine females had the capacity to gestate up to three fetuses per uterine horn, or a total of five fetuses, above which pregnancy was terminated.

Ovulation rate and twinning rate in cattle: heritabilities and genetic correlation.

TLDR
The results support the approach of indirectly selecting for twinning rate by measuring ovulation rates in estrous cycles of puberal heifers, and no evidence of negative environmental covariance between ovulating rates in adjacent cycles was found.

Causes of variation in the frequency of monozygous and dizygous twinning in various breeds of cattle.

TLDR
According to statistical investigation, twinning depends on polygenic inheritance and also on various environmental influences, with a threshold for the phenotypic manifestation, and it may be assumed that the underlying liability of the cows in a population to bear twins has an approximately normal distribution.

Effects of early weaning on postpartum reproduction of the dam and growth of calves born as multiples or singles.

TLDR
Gestation lengths of single calves were longer (P < .01) than those of multiples and incidence of retained placenta increased in dams producing multiple births in beef females.

Effects of maternal nutritional status on fetal and placental growth and on fetal urea synthesis in sheep.

TLDR
Fetal and placental growth, and fetal and maternal urea synthesis in late gestation, were studied in 2-year-old Corriedale ewes except when subjected to moderate dietary restriction and amino acid oxidation could have accounted for up to 32, 38, 40 and 57% of fetal oxygen consumption in groups MM, MR, RM and RR.