Effects of tramadol and buprenorphine on select immunologic factors in a cecal ligation and puncture model.

Abstract

Sepsis research relies on animal models. The models that most closely resemble clinical disease, such as cecal ligation and puncture, require surgery. After surgery, analgesics may not be included in experimental protocols because of concern over effects on inflammatory responses. This often generates animal welfare controversies within institutions… (More)

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