Following stroke, many patients suffer from chronic motor impairment and reduced somatosensation in the stroke-affected body parts. Recent experimental studies suggest that temporary functional deafferentation (TFD) of parts of the stroke-affected upper limb or of the less-affected contralateral limb might improve the sensorimotor capacity of the stroke-affected hand. The present study sought evidence of cortical reorganization and related sensory and motor improvements following pharmacologically induced TFD of the stroke-affected forearm. Examination was performed during 2 d of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy. Thirty-six human patients were deafferented on the stroke-affected forearm by an anesthetic cream (containing lidocaine and prilocaine) on one of the 2 d, and a placebo cream was applied on the other. The order of TFD and placebo treatment was counterbalanced across patients. Somatosensory and motor performance were assessed using a Grating orienting task and a Shape-sorter-drum task, and with somatosensory-evoked magnetic fields. Evoked magnetic fields showed significant pre- to postevaluation magnitude increases in response to tactile stimulation of the thumb of the stroke-affected hand during TFD but not following placebo treatment. We also observed a rapid extension of the distance between cortical representations of the stroke-affected thumb and little finger following TFD but not following placebo treatment. Moreover, somatosensory and motor performance of the stroke-affected hand was significantly enhanced during TFD but not during placebo treatment. Thus, pharmacologically induced TFD of a stroke-affected forearm might improve the somatosensory and motor functions of the stroke-affected upper limb, accompanied by cortical plasticity.