Effects of sulfate and sulfide on the life cycle of Zizania palustris in hydroponic and mesocosm experiments.

  title={Effects of sulfate and sulfide on the life cycle of Zizania palustris in hydroponic and mesocosm experiments.},
  author={J. Pastor and B. Dewey and N. Johnson and E. Swain and P. Monson and E. Peters and A. Myrbo},
  journal={Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America},
  volume={27 1},
  • J. Pastor, B. Dewey, +4 authors A. Myrbo
  • Published 2017
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America
Under oxygenated conditions, sulfate is relatively non-toxic to aquatic plants. However, in water-saturated soils, which are usually anoxic, sulfate can be reduced to toxic sulfide. Although the direct effects of sulfate and sulfide on the physiology of a few plant species have been studied in some detail, their cumulative effects on a plant's life cycle through inhibition of seed germination, seedling survival, growth, and seed production have been less well studied. We investigated the effect… Expand
Interactions between sulfide and reproductive phenology of an annual aquatic plant, wild rice (Zizania palustris)
Sulfide appears to slow plant development in a way that gives the plant less time to allocate nutrients to seeds before senescence, and the impact of sulfide in delaying reproductive life stages of wild rice and changing seasonal rooting zone biogeochemistry could extend to other plant species and additional chemical species that change mobility with redox potential. Expand
Toxicity of sulfide to early life stages of wild rice (Zizania palustris).
Results indicate that exposure of developing wild rice to sulfide at ≥3.1’mg sulfide/L in the presence of 0.8 mg Fe/L reduced mesocotyl emergence, demonstrating the importance of iron in mitigating sulfide toxicity to wild rice. Expand
Impact of Hydroponic Oxygen Control in Sulfide Toxicity to Early Life-Stages of Wild Rice (Zizania palustris).
Overall, mesocotyl emergence was consistently the most sensitive endpoint in the study, while seed activation, seedling survival, root growth, leaf number and biomass, and phytotoxicity were less sensitive endpoints. Expand
Iron sulfide formation on root surfaces controlled by the life cycle of wild rice (Zizania palustris)
Iron sulfide plaques have been observed on roots of wild rice (Zizania palustris) and other wetland plants grown in sulfur-impacted freshwater ecosystems, but the mechanism of their formation andExpand
Sulfide Generated by Sulfate Reduction is a Primary Controller of the Occurrence of Wild Rice (Zizania palustris) in Shallow Aquatic Ecosystems
Field observations suggest that surface-water sulfate concentrations control the distribution of wild rice, an aquatic grass (Zizania palustris). However, hydroponic studies show that sulfate is notExpand
Cumulative Sulfate Loads Shift Porewater to Sulfidic Conditions in Freshwater Wetland Sediment
The results illuminate the evolution of the geochemical setting and timescales over which 4 yr of cumulative sulfate loading resulted in a wholesale shift from Fe‐dominated to sulfide‐dominated porewater chemistry, accompanied by detrimental effects to, and eventual extirpation of, self‐perpetuating wild rice populations. Expand
Increase in Nutrients, Mercury, and Methylmercury as a Consequence of Elevated Sulfate Reduction to Sulfide in Experimental Wetland Mesocosms
Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) in both freshwater and marine ecosystems is a pathway for the decomposition of sedimentary organic matter (OM) after oxygen has been consumed. In experimentalExpand
The Evolution of Sulfide in Shallow Aquatic Ecosystem Sediments: An Analysis of the Roles of Sulfate, Organic Carbon, and Iron and Feedback Constraints Using Structural Equation Modeling
The generation of elevated concentrations of sulfide in sediment pore waters that are toxic to rooted macrophytes is problematic in both marine and freshwaters. In marine waters, biogeochemicalExpand
Diverse Communities of hgcAB+ Microorganisms Methylate Mercury in Freshwater Sediments Subjected to Experimental Sulfate Loading.
The results indicate that methylating communities dominated by diverse anaerobic microorganisms that do not reduce sulfate can produce MeHg as effectively as communitiesdominated by sulfate-reducing populations. Expand
Toxicity and Transcriptome Sequencing (RNA-seq) Analyses of Adult Zebrafish in Response to Exposure Carboxymethyl Cellulose Stabilized Iron Sulfide Nanoparticles
Preliminary mechanistic insights into potential toxic effects of organic matter stabilized FeS nanoparticles are provided, which will improve the understanding of the genotoxicity caused by stabilized nanoparticles. Expand


Sulfide as a soil phytotoxin—a review
Sulfide is a potent phytotoxin, profoundly affecting plant fitness and ecosystem functioning in the full range of wetland types including coastal systems, and at several levels: the ecophysiological functioning of individual plants, plant-microbe associations, and community effects including competition and facilitation interactions. Expand
Toxicity of sulfate and chloride to early life stages of wild rice (Zizania palustris).
Sulfate concentrations below 5000mg/L did not adversely affect early-life stage wild rice during a 21-d period, and effects at 5000 mg/L sulfate were attributable to conductivity-related stress rather than sulfate toxicity in 2 of 4 end points. Expand
Mechanism for the hydrogen sulfide‐induced growth limitation in wetland macrophytes
Hydrogen sulfide suppressed the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the enzyme that catalyzes the terminal step in alcoholic fermentation, in the roots of two wetland macrophytes, lending support to the hypotheses that ADH activity, as a mcasurc of fermcntative metabolism, is important in maintaining the root energy status of wetland plants under hypoxic-anoxic conditions. Expand
Ecological relationships of wild rice, Zizania aquatica. 9. Production in organic-flocculent sediments.
The three organic–flocculent lakes exhibited similar poor wild rice production, retarded phenological development, and red colouration on wild rice stems and leaves, and it was hypothesized that a common limiting factor was affecting wild Rice production in this type of sediment. Expand
Iron Sulphide Accumulation in the Rhizosphere of Wetland Rice (Oryza sativa L.) as the Result of Microbial Activities
An intensified sulphase reduction in the immediate rhizosphere of dead roots finally leads to a typical “post mortem” accumulation of FeS on the rhizoplane, however, in some cases such as spermosphere or young roots without aerenchym, a direct toxicity of sulphides may result in the death of germinating seeds and seedlings, accompanied by FeS precipitation. Expand
Ecological relationships of wild rice, Zizania aquatica. 7. Sediment nutrient depletion following introduction of wild rice to a shallow boreal lake
A marked decline in wild rice production was observed 5 years after a northwestern Ontario lake was seeded, and changes in distribution of wild rice and in values of water depth, organic matter, dry weight of other macrophytes, and wild rice density and dry weight indicated that the decrease in sediment nitrogen was probably associated with movement ofWild rice straw within the lake. Expand
Germination of Wild Rice, Zizania aquatica, Seeds and the Activity of Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Young Seedlings
Seeds of wild rice (Zizania aquatka L.) which were stored at 3°C for 3 months after harvest did not germinate until portions of seed coat above the embryo region were removed, and there was no apparent difference between seedlings germinated under normal, aerated and anaerobic conditions. Expand
Hydroponic culture of wild rice (Zizania palustris L.) and its application to studies of silicon nutrition and fungal brown spot disease
A method was developed to reliably infect leaves and stems of hydroponically grown wild rice with Bipolaris oryzae, the pathogen causing FBS, and Silicon amendments did not significantly increase growth and had no apparent effect on resistance to FBS. Expand
Ecological relationships of wild rice, Zizania spp. 10. Effects of sediment and among-population variations on plant density in Zizania palustris
As plant densities increased under constant nutrient levels, height, weight, and seed production declined but inequality of individual plants increased, when both nutrient levels and population densities were increased simultaneously, seed production per panicle declined at higher d... Expand
Impact of sulfur (S) fertilization in paddy soils on copper (Cu) accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under flooding conditions
As the biogeochemical cycling of S in soil is closely associated with the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals, in this study, we investigated the influence of S fertilization (S0 and SO42−)Expand