Effects of steroid hormones on morphology and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in female bladder.

OBJECTIVES To investigate the roles of steroid hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, in the morphology and vascularization of the female bladder. METHODS A total of 70 adult, female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 7 groups: group 1, sham; group 2, ovariectomized rats without treatment; group 3, low-dose estradiol; group 4… CONTINUE READING