Prostate Cancer, Treatment Modalities and Complications: An Evaluation of the Scientific Literature
Worldwide disparities exist between geographic regions with regard to prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Countries in East Asia have lower rates of prostate cancer compared with Western countries such as Canada and the US. Some suggest that dietary differences between the two geographic regions, particularly the higher amount of phytoestrogens consumed in East Asia, is responsible for the difference in prostate cancer incidence. The mechanism of action of the soy isoflavones is incompletely understood, but in regards to prostate carcinogenesis likely involves estrogenic effects, cell cycle inhibition, anti-angiogenesis and induction of apoptosis. Recent clinical studies have provided mixed results with regard to a clear association between prostate cancer and soy consumption. Further studies are needed to understand more clearly the relationship between soy consumption and prostatic diseases.