Effects of soy and other natural products on LDL:HDL ratio and other lipid parameters: A literature review

@article{Hermansen2003EffectsOS,
  title={Effects of soy and other natural products on LDL:HDL ratio and other lipid parameters: A literature review},
  author={Kjeld Hermansen and Bo Dinesen and Lars H. H{\o}ie and Eve C. A. Morgenstern and Joerg Gruenwald},
  journal={Advances in Therapy},
  year={2003},
  volume={20},
  pages={50-78}
}
Abnormal lipid levels contribute significantly to the risk of coronary heart disease, a major cardiovascular disease and a serious health problem. Various dietary and pharmacologic treatments have been devised to reduce elevated blood cholesterol levels. Soy protein, soluble fiber, and plant sterol/ester-containing margarines are promising new food-component candidates that may help to realize this goal. Of particular interest in this context is the LDL:HDL ratio, a strong predictor of cardiac… 
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References

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A randomized trial comparing the effect of casein with that of soy protein containing varying amounts of isoflavones on plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins.
TLDR
Naturally occurring isoflavones isolated with soy protein reduce the plasma concentrations of total and LDL cholesterol without affecting concentrations of triglycerides or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in mildly hypercholesterolemic volunteers consuming a National Cholesterol Education Program Step I diet.
Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis.
TLDR
A meta-analysis of 67 controlled trials was performed to quantify the cholesterol-lowering effect of major dietary fibers, finding that increasing soluble fiber can make only a small contribution to dietary therapy to lower cholesterol.
A comparison of the effects of 2 doses of soy protein or casein on serum lipids, serum lipoproteins, and plasma total homocysteine in hypercholesterolemic subjects.
TLDR
Adding 30-50 g soy protein/d to a lipid-lowering diet significantly reduced LDL-cholesterol concentrations without increasing lipoprotein(a) concentrations and plasma total homocysteine concentrations decreased, suggesting a novel, possibly antiatherosclerotic effect.
Beneficial Effects of a Soy-Based Dietary Supplement on Lipid Levels and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects
TLDR
Beneficial effects of dietary supplementation with Abalon on cardiovascular risk markers in type 2 diabetic subjects are seen even in individuals with near-normal lipid values.
Soy isoflavones improve plasma lipids in normocholesterolemic and mildly hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women.
TLDR
Although the effects were small, it is possible that isoflavones may contribute to a lower risk of coronary heart disease if consumed over many years in conjunction with other lipid-lowering strategies.
Long-term intake of soy protein improves blood lipid profiles and increases mononuclear cell low-density-lipoprotein receptor messenger RNA in hypercholesterolemic, postmenopausal women.
TLDR
It is indicated that soy protein, with different amounts of isoflavones, may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease via improved blood lipid profiles, and that the mechanism by which apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins were depressed may be via alterations in LDL receptor quantity or activity.
Effects of substituting dietary soybean protein and oil for milk protein and fat in subjects with hypercholesterolemia.
TLDR
In people with hypercholesterolemia, the plasma lipid profile improved after treatment with a soybean-product diet, and this improvement was partially due to soy oil.
Effects of feeding 4 levels of soy protein for 3 and 6 wk on blood lipids and apolipoproteins in moderately hypercholesterolemic men.
TLDR
It is shown that consuming as little as 20 g soy protein/d instead of animal protein for 6 wk reduces concentrations of non-HDL cholesterol and apo B by approximately 2.6% and 2.2%, respectively.
Soy isoflavones improve plasma lipids in normocholesterolemic, premenopausal women.
TLDR
Isoflavones significantly improved the lipid profile across the menstrual cycle in normocholesterolemic, premenopausal women, and could contribute to a lower risk of developing coronary heart disease in healthy people who consume soy over many years.
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