An investigation of the functional and histological changes was done after en-bloc kidney-pancreaticoduodenal transplantation (kpdt) in the diabetes-induced, renal insufficient Lewis rats. For donor preparation, an end-to-side portocaval shunt was performed, and the aortic, vena caval segments, and ureter-bladder patch were obtained. They were anastomosed microsurgically to recipient's aorta, vena cava, and bladder in end-to-side fashion. Of 15 diabetes-induced kpdt rats, 14 survived. Two of the 14 surviving rats showed ischemic necrosis. The remaining 12 transplants showed well-preserved glomeruli and Langerhans islets for 5 months postoperatively. Biochemical data comparing diabetic and sham-operated rats (six rats each), six diabetic controls, and 12 kpdt rats showed no significant statistical difference at said observation period. The diabetes-induced kpdt rats showed improvement of following biochemical data: within 1 week postoperatively, the glucose level fell from 300 to 115 mg/dL; BUN level from >20 to <20 mg/dL; the creatinine level from 1.5 to <1.2 mg/dL. The insulin level returned to normal, 1.1 ng/mL, in 2 weeks. The results demonstrate that the kpdt model is an effective and successful operative technique in diabetic rats and may provide effective therapeutic methods for diabetes-induced renal insufficiency.