Effects of opioids on the immune system

@article{Roy2006EffectsOO,
  title={Effects of opioids on the immune system},
  author={Sabita Roy and Horace H Loh},
  journal={Neurochemical Research},
  year={2006},
  volume={21},
  pages={1375-1386}
}
Both therapeutic and chronic uses of opioids compromise the optimal functioning of the immune system. Overwhelming evidence suggests that opioid use affects both innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Chronic administration of opioids decreases the proliferative capacity of macrophage progenitor cells and lymphocytes. Additionally, the differentiated function of immune cells is significantly affected by opioids. These effects are mediated by either a direct action of opioids on the target cells… 
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