To determine the effects of nonpulsatile left heart bypass (LHB) on sympathetic nerve activity the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) was directly measured in rabbits. In anaesthetized rabbits (n=6), LHB was instituted with a centrifugal pump. Before and during LHB, heart rate (HR), arterial pressure (AP), central venous pressure (CVP), left atrial pressure (LAP) and spike counts of RSNA were measured. After bilateral vagotomy (section of the afferent inputs of the cardiac reflex arc) the same parameters were measured before and during LHB. Data were obtained at the same level of mean AP before and during LHB. Mean AP and CVP were not changed by LHB before and after vagotomy. LAP was significantly decreased by LHB before and after vagotomy. RSNA and HR were not significantly changed by LHB before and after vagotomy. Our results clarify the complex baroreflex control during nonpulsatile LHB and indicate that RSNA is not altered by LHB.