Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task

@article{Eriksen1974EffectsON,
  title={Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task},
  author={B. Eriksen and C. Eriksen},
  journal={Perception \& Psychophysics},
  year={1974},
  volume={16},
  pages={143-149}
}
During a 1-sec tachistoscopic exposure, Ss responded with a right or left leverpress to a single target letter from the sets H and K or S and C. The target always appeared directly above the fixation cross. Experimentally varied were the types of noise letters (response compatible or incompatible) flanking the target and the spacing between the letters in the display. In all noise conditions, reaction time (RT) decreased as between-letter spacing increased. However, noise letters of the… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

Effects of noise letters on decisions: Discrete or continuous flow of information?
  • J. Miller
  • Computer Science, Medicine
  • Perception & psychophysics
  • 1982
TLDR
Four forced-choice letter-detection experiments examined the effect on detection latency of noise letters that were visually similar to target letters to test a prediction of models in which information about noise letters is transmitted continuously from the recognition to the decision process. Expand
Masking Effects of Similar and Dissimilar Letters: A Test of the Interactive Channels Model
TLDR
Although performance deteriorated in the presence of noise letters compared to control conditions, masking was no greater with similar than dissimilar noise letters, suggesting facilitation of target perception when mask and target shared features critical to the target-discrimination task. Expand
The interfering effect of word perception on letter identification
  • J. Lawry
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Perception & psychophysics
  • 1980
TLDR
Subgroups of subjects with different characteristic processing patterns were differentially affected by the context conditions in the letter-identification task, and a greater subgroup difference was found in nonwords than in words. Expand
Absence of distracting information explains the redundant signals effect for a centrally presented categorization task.
TLDR
The results indicate that, when targets are defined categorically and not presented bilaterally, the redundant signals effect may be an effect of reducing the presence of information that draws attention away from the target. Expand
Response priming effects in a digit naming task as a function of target-noise separation
Oral naming latencies were measured for visually displayed digits that were flanked by either compatible (identical) or incompatible (different) noise digits. When target-noise spatial separation wasExpand
Repeated-stimulus superiority and inferiority effects in the identification of letters and digits
TLDR
The present study investigated phenomena that are consistent with accounts that attribute the repeated-stimulus superiority effect to competition that occurs when different internal recognition responses are activated and suggest that the repeated -stimulus inferiority effect has its basis in processes that occur subsequent to feature extraction. Expand
Feature-specific border effects in the discrimination of letter-like forms
  • M. White
  • Computer Science, Medicine
  • Perception & psychophysics
  • 1981
TLDR
The principal result relating to target-noise border featural relationship was consistent with predictions derived from models which place the locus of noise effects at the stage of stimulus feature extraction andpects of the results were seen to be consistent with both Feature extraction and response competition conceptualizations. Expand
Temporal characteristics of noise conditions producing facilitation and interference
TLDR
In reaction time (RT) experiments, a target letter was flanked by noise letters with differing relations to the target, and it was suggested that there are two facilitative processes-direct response priming by compatibility, and facilitation of stimulus coding by stimulus identity. Expand
Effect on of familiarity and category contrast stimulus and response priming
TLDR
Findings were interpreted as suggesting that response competition can be influenced by both classification decision rules and cohesiveness of exemplars comprising a category. Expand
Evidence in support of word unitization
  • W. O’hara
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Perception & psychophysics
  • 1980
TLDR
The results indicated that correct “same” RTs were a function of noise item type and its relation to target letters, and anagrams increased RTs more than their counterpart words, except when the noise word was either unmeaningflul or response incompatible with respect to the target letters. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 18 REFERENCES
The extent of processing of noise elements during selective encoding from visual displays
TLDR
The results indicated that the interference produced by noise letters is primarily on the response as opposed to the processing side and there is a limit to the precision of selective attention in the visual field. Expand
Effects of noise similarity and redundancy on the information processed from brief visual displays
TLDR
It was found that increases in the physical differences between noise and target letters and increases in redundancy facilitated detection, and it is argued that these data support a detection model that assumes parallel rather than serial information processing. Expand
Letter identification in relation to linguistic context and masking conditions
TLDR
With a two-choice detection procedure, identifiability of signal letters was determined in backgrounds of words, nonword letter strings, or homogeneous noise characters under high performance conditions and under low performance conditions. Expand
Two operations in character recognition: Some evidence from reaction-time measurements
Theories of the recognition of a visual character may be divided into three sets.defined by the way in which the stimulus is encoded before being compared to a memorized target character. AExpand
Interactions of signal and background variables in visual processing
Three variables which determine the opportunities for signal-noise confusions, display size (D), number of redundant signals per display (N), and number of alternative signals (A) were studied inExpand
Selective encoding from multielement visual displays
When a multiletter display is preceded by a bar designating one of the letters for report, reaction time (RT) to voice the indicated letter decreases. Previous research had indicated that theExpand
Temporal and spatial characteristics of selective encoding from visual displays
The time required for Ss to voice a target letter in a visual display was studied as a function of the spatial proximity of two kinds of noise elements (letters or disks) to the target and as aExpand
Reaction times and error rates for “same”-“different” judgments of multidimensional stimull
Each S indicated whether two successively presented rows of letters were “same” or “different.” Reaction times of the “different” response seemed to indicate that S examined the stimulus letters in aExpand
Evidence for independent parallel channels in tachistoscopic perception
Abstract This paper reviews the implications of a number of experimental results for a test between two different types of models of perceptual processing: models that assume a limitation ofExpand
A multicomponent theory of the perception of briefly exposed visual displays
TLDR
In a final section the model which is presented as an extension of Bower's multicomponent model for memory is shown to be derivable as a limiting case of LaBerge's neutral element stimulus sampling model. Expand
...
1
2
...