Effects of nocodazole and brefeldin A on microtubule cytoskeleton and membrane organization in the homobasidiomyceteSchizophyllum commune

  title={Effects of nocodazole and brefeldin A on microtubule cytoskeleton and membrane organization in the homobasidiomyceteSchizophyllum commune},
  author={Ivan Rupe{\vs} and W. -Z. Mao and Helena {\AA}str{\"o}m and Marjatta Raudaskoski},
SummaryThe effects of nocodazole and brefeldin A (BFA) on the growth of dikaryotic hyphae inSchizophyllum commune corresponded with the development of abnormal structures in the apical region of treated hyphae. Microtubules (MTs) were totally depolymerized after 1 h nocodazole treatment, which correlated with strong branch formation in the apical cells. One reason for branching could be the shift in the position of apical vesicles from the center to the side of the tip, observed in some… 
Centrosome and microtubule dynamics in apical cells ofSphacelaria rigidula (Phaeophyceae) treated with nocodazole
The observations show that the Mt cytoskeleton is involved in maintaining the polarity and growth pattern of apical cells, and mitosis is blocked by low concentrations of Nz without significant depolymerization of Mts, and the centrosome cycle is independent of the nuclear cycle.
Localized accumulation of cell wall mannoproteins and endomembranes induced by brefeldin A in hyphal cells of the dimorphic yeastCandida albicans
The accumulated structures induced by 35 μM BFA seemed to be the altered forms of Golgi cisternae, which might indicate that the step(s) in membrane trafficking that are associated with the Golgi pathway are vectorially organized in hyphal growth of Candida albicans.
Effects of methyl benzimidazoIe-2-yl carbamate on microtubule and actin cytoskeleton inAspergillus nidulans
Changes probably resulted from the disassembly of MTs and the reorientation of actin cytoskeleton in MBC-treated apexes and suggested that MTs would organize the actin at the apex, which in turn would restrict the vesicle fusion to a narrow area at the hyphal tip.
Topology of microtubules and actin in the life cycle of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma)
The morphology of budding and conjugating cells and associated changes in microtubules and actin distribution were studied in the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) by
Involvement of the cytoskeleton in the intracellular distribution of mannoproteins in hyphal cells ofCandida albicans
The results suggested that the microtubules are involved in membrane trafficking in hyphal growth as well as the cell polarity of the hyphae.
Hypaphorine, an indole-3-acetic acid antagonist delivered by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius, induces reorganisation of actin and the microtubule cytoskeleton in Eucalyptus globulus ssp bicostata root hairs
It is shown that hypaphorine changes cytoskeletal organisation in elongating root hairs of the host and could stabilise the structure of cytOSkeletal elements, which in turn could hinder the vesicle delivery at the tip necessary for elongation.
The dynamic behaviour of microtubules and their contributions to hyphal tip growth in Aspergillus nidulans.
It is suggested that the population of dynamic apical MTs enhance migration of the 'cytomatrix', thus ensuring that organelles and proteins maintain proximity to the constantly elongating tip.
Evidence of an alternative route of cellobiase secretion in the presence of brefeldin A in the filamentous fungus Termitomyces clypeatus.
The observations aimed at the operation of an alternative secretory pathway, distinct from the target of brefeldin A, which bypassed the Golgi apparatus, but still was able to deliver the cargo to the vacuoles for secretion, which can be utilized in selectively enhancing the yield and stability of glycosidases for a successful industrial recipe.
Effect of Brefeldin A on cell-wall polysaccharide production in the red microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta) through its effect on the Golgi apparatus
The integrated results of this study demonstrate clearly that BFA affects the architecture of the Golgi apparatus and hence polysaccharide production in algal cells.


Microtubule cytoskeleton in hyphal growth. Response to nocodazole in a sensitive and a tolerant strain of the homobasidiomycete Schizophyllum commune.
In the wild-type strains of the homobasidiomycete Schizophyllum commune microtubules were totally depolymerized by low concentrations of nocodazole, while high concentrations of benomyl only modified
Effects of MBC on hyphal tip organization, growth, and mitosis ofFusarium acuminatum, and their antagonism by D2O
Several nuclei fragmented (multimicronucleation) in a manner apparently similar to mammalian nuclei treated with antitubulin agents, suggesting that the effects of MBC on apical organization, Spitzenkörper integrity, hyphal growth and mitosis could have been mediated through interference with microtubules.
Comparative immunocytochemistry of the cytoskeleton in filamentous fungi with dikaryotic and multinucieate hyphae
Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of microtubules of five filamentous fungi and four homobasidiomycetes indicated that the gross structure of the microtubule cytoskeleton was comparable in spite of the multinucleate and dikaryotic cell conditions.
Ultrastructural analysis of hyphal tip cell growth in fungi: Spitzenkörper, cytoskeleton and endomembranes after freeze-substitution.
The ultrastructure of freeze-substituted tip cells of Fusarium acuminatum was analysed and it is suggested that cytoskeletal elements play important roles in localized cell wall formation and the filasome, a previously unreported type of coated vesicle in fungi, might be involved in wall synthesis.
Cytoplasmic microtubules and fungal morphogenesis: ultrastructural effects of methyl benzimidazole-2-ylcarbamate determined by freeze- substitution of hyphal tip cells
The effects of methyl benzimidazole-2-ylcarbamate (MBC) and D2O were analyzed at the ultrastructural level in freeze-substituted hyphal tip cells of Fusarium acuminatum to support the "vesicle hypothesis" of tip growth and establish a transport role for cytoplasmic microtubules in fungal morphogenesis.
Ultrastructural aspects of the hyphal tip ofSclerotium rolfsii preserved by freeze substitution
SummaryThe hyphal tip ofSclerotium rolfsii was examined after fixation by freeze substitution. The Spitzenkörper consisted of a dense mass of apical vesicles and microvesicles surrounding a
The microtubule cytoskeleton in hyphae ofUromyces phaseoli germlings: Its relationship to the region of nucleation and to the F-actin cytoskeleton
It was concluded that the microtubule nucleating region in such fungal cells is located in the apical regions of the hypha, and depolymerization of microtubules occurred first in the hyphal apices and not near the nuclei or spindle pole bodies.
Investigation of the distribution of the actin cytoskeleton in hyphal tips of the plant pathogenic fungus Sclerotium rolfsii suggested that the fibrillar coating of filasome contained actin and that filasomes represented the ultrastructural equivalent of actin plaques.
Hyphal tip organization inAllomyces arbuscula
Light and electron microscopic observations on vegetative hyphae of Allomyces arbuscula revealed the specialized organization of the tip, which may maintain the polarity of the hymphae via a gradient and hold it in a state of vegetative growth.