Effects of nicotine patch or nasal spray on nicotine and cotinine concentrations in pregnant smokers.

OBJECTIVE To examine the short-term effects of the nicotine patch or nasal spray on measures of nicotine exposure, withdrawal symptoms, and on maternal and fetal heart rates in pregnant smokers. METHODS We measured nicotine/cotinine concentrations and maternal and fetal heart rates during an 8-h monitoring session while smoking and again after 4 days of… CONTINUE READING