Effects of nabam on developingXenopus laevis embryos: Minimum concentration, biological stability, and degradative products

  title={Effects of nabam on developingXenopus laevis embryos: Minimum concentration, biological stability, and degradative products},
  author={White Birch and K. V. Prahlad},
  journal={Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology},
  • W. BirchK. Prahlad
  • Published 1 November 1986
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
This study was carried out to determine 1) the minimum concentration at which the fungicide ethylenebisdithiocarbamate disodium salt (nabam) would induce malformations in developingXenopus laevis embryos, 2) whether nabam in solution retained toxicological and teratogenic effects over long periods of time, 3) to compare the toxic and teratogenic effects of nabam's degradative products ethylene thiourea and ethylene diamine, 4) to compare toxic and teratogenic effects of the related substances… 

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The results indicate that developing zebrafish are sensitive to NaM and MITC and it is believed that this model is ideal to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) and etiology of NaM toxicity in vertebrates.

Description and initial evaluation of a Xenopus metamorphosis assay for detection of thyroid system‐disrupting activities of environmental compounds

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Activity profiles of developmental toxicity: design considerations and pilot implementation.

The available literature was searched for quantitative test results from both in vitro and in vivo assays for developmental toxicity for five model compounds: cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, hydroxyurea, caffeine, and ethylenethiourea, and these profiles can be used to compare qualitative and quantitative results across multiple assay systems.

Allelopathic effects of glucosinolate breakdown products in Hanza [Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam.] processing waste water

It is found that germination of a subset of the plant species was inhibited equally to the waste water treatments, which confirmed that the levels of methylisiothiocyanate in the wasteWater were sufficient to cause the allelopathic effect, leading to the possibility of using hanza waste water in weed control programs.

The need for water quality criteria for frogs.

  • R. BoyerC. Grue
  • Environmental Science
    Environmental health perspectives
  • 1995
Data is reviewed that support the need to develop water quality parameters for frogs in agroecosystems and other habitats and suggests eutrophic conditions may be associated with frog embryo mortality or malformations.

Screening chemicals for thyroid-disrupting activity: A critical comparison of mammalian and amphibian models

There is little convincing evidence that an amphibian screening assay would detect significant numbers of thyroid-active chemicals not picked up by mammalian assays, which could introduce unnecessary and unjustified redundancy into chemical safety assessment programs, when there is pressure to reduce animal use in toxicity testing.

Toxicological Impact of Agricultural Surfactants on Australian Frogs

The acute toxicity of agricultural surfactants to the tadpoles of four Australian and two exotic frogs is studied and the results show clear and consistent associations with known neurotoxicity in animals and humans.



The deleterious effects of fungicides and herbicides onXenopus laevis embryos

Groups of 30Xenopus laevis embryos, at “tail-bud” stage (Nieukoop-Faber stages 22–24) were exposed to 0.1–2 ppm concentrations of various pesticides for 1 to 10 days, and many of these embryos developed a slightly retarded trunk and tail only.

Effect of ethylenebis (dithiocarbamic acid)disodium salt(nabam)and ethylenebis(dithiocarbamato)manganese(maneb) on Xenopus laevis development.

Results indicate that minute doses of these commonly used fungicides are harmful to the normal development of amphibian embryos.

Perinatal toxicity of maneb, ethylene thiourea, and ethylenebisisothiocyanate sulfide in rodents.

In addition to the perinatal effects noted above, both maneb and EBIS caused maternal limb paralysis in the rat, an effect not noted in the mouse at much higher doses.

Platanna (Xenopus laevis) as a test organism for determining the embryotoxic effects of environmental chemicals.

Teratogenic and lethal effects of paraquat on developing frog embryos (Rana pipiens)

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Analysis of trypan blue induced teratogenesis in Rana pipiens embryos.

Fertilized Rana pipiens eggs were treated with 0.5% solution of trypan blue in spring water and malformations of the forebrain included absence of the diencephalon, optic cups, and cranial ganglia, and Trypan blue was never found within the cells of the embryos.