OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of losartan on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in elderly patients with essential hypertension (EH). METHODS The elderly patients with EH were divided into two groups, namely EH+LVH group and EH group according to the data of echocardiogram. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures of the patients were monitored. Plasma TGF-beta1 was measured before and after 6 months' treatment with losartan, and the relationship between TGF-beta1 and other index were analyzed. RESULTS After 6 months' treatment, the blood pressure of EH+LVH group and EH group were significantly lowered (P<0.01). Significant improvement of IVSTd, LVPWd, E/A, and LVMI (P<0.01) and obvious reduction of plasma TGF-beta1 (P<0.01) occurred in EH+LVH group after 6 months' treatment. Correlation analyses indicated that the plasma TGF-beta1 level was positively correlated to LVMI (P<0.01). CONCLUSION Losartan can reversed LVH in elderly patients with EH partially by lowering plasma TGF-beta1 level.