It is known that the development of diabetic complications in human pregnancy is directly related to the severity and the duration of this pathology. In this study, we developed a model of long-term type 1 diabetes to investigate its effects on the cytoarchitecture, extracellular matrix and cell proliferation during the first adaptation phase of the myometrium for pregnancy. A single dose of alloxan was used to induce diabetes in mice prior to pregnancy. To identify the temporal effects of diabetes the mice were divided into two groups: Group D1 (females that became pregnant 90-100 days after alloxan); Group D2 (females that became pregnant 100-110 days after alloxan). Uterine samples were collected after 168 h of pregnancy and processed for light and electron microscopy. In both groups the histomorphometric evaluation showed that diabetes promoted narrowing of the myometrial muscle layers which was correlated with decreased cell proliferation demonstrated by PCNA immunodetection. In D1, diabetes increased the distance between muscle layers and promoted oedema. Contrarily, in D2 the distance between muscle layers decreased and, instead of oedema, there was a markedly deposition of collagen in the myometrium. Ultrastructural analysis showed that diabetes affects the organization of the smooth muscle cells and their myofilaments. Consistently, the immunoreaction for smooth muscle α-actin revealed clear disorganization of the contractile apparatus in both diabetic groups. In conclusion, the present model demonstrated that long-term diabetes promotes significant alterations in the myometrium in a time-sensitive manner. Together, these alterations indicate that diabetes impairs the first phenotypic adaptation phase of the pregnant myometrium.