Effects of load manipulations, heart rate, and contractility on left ventricular apical rotation. An experimental study in anesthetized dogs.


BACKGROUND Left ventricular twist or torsion has been defined as the counterclockwise rotation of the ventricular apex with respect to the base during systole. We have recently shown that since base rotation is minimal, measurement of apex rotation reflects the dynamics of left ventricular (LV) twist. Since the mechanisms by which load and contractility… (More)


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