Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles: Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, developmental toxicity, and neurotoxicity

  title={Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles: Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, developmental toxicity, and neurotoxicity},
  author={Vanessa Valdiglesias and G{\"o}zde KiliÇ and Carla Costa and Natalia Fern{\'a}ndez-Bert{\'o}lez and Eduardo P{\'a}saro and Jo{\~a}o Paulo Teixeira and Blanca Laffon},
  journal={Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis},
Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) with superparamagnetic properties hold great promise for use in various biomedical applications; specific examples include use as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, in targeted drug delivery, and for induced hyperthermia cancer treatments. Increasing potential applications raise concerns over their potential effects on human health. Nevertheless, very little is currently known about the toxicity associated with exposure to these nanoparticles at… 

Organ-specific toxicity of magnetic iron oxide-based nanoparticles

Tests conducted on animals with pathologies representing human chronic socially significant diseases are of great importance for further medical translation on nanomaterials to practice and should be taken into account for subsequent studies of the toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles.

Toxicological assessment of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in human astrocytes.

Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles: Advances in Biodistribution, Toxicity, and Preclinical Exploration.

Cerium oxide is considered, a well-known catalyst in the petrochemistry industry and one of the first antioxidant nanoparticles proposed for medicine, described as a promising therapeutic alternative, now as threatening to health.

Toxicity of Nanoparticles in Biomedical Application: Nanotoxicology

This review presents a comprehensive update on nanoparticles' toxic effects, the factors underlying their toxicity, and the mechanisms by which toxicity is induced.

In vitro toxicity evaluation of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in human SHSY5Y neuronal cells.

Despite being effectively internalized by the neuronal cells, S-ION presented in general low cytotoxicity; positive results were only obtained in some assays at the highest concentrations and/or the longest exposure time tested, while negative evaluations in serum-free medium were negative.

In vitro cytotoxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on neuronal and glial cells. Evaluation of nanoparticle interference with viability tests

The main objective of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of two ION (magnetite), coated with silica and oleic acid, previously determining the possible interference of the ION with the methodological procedures to assure the reliability of the results obtained.

Nanoparticles and potential neurotoxicity: focus on molecular mechanisms

This review will discuss the available information on the mechanisms involved in the interaction between nanoobjects and cells of the nervous system, focusing on the known molecular actors, both at the plasma membrane and in intracellular compartments.



Potential toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION)

Current studies are reviewed and discussed how SPION, with or without different surface coating, may cause cellular perturbations including modulation of actin cytoskeleton, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis and altered cellular responses such as activation of signalling pathways and impairment of cell cycle regulation.

Concentration-dependent toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles mediated by increased oxidative stress

This study concluded that use of a low optimum concentration of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is important for avoidance of oxidative stress-induced cell injury and death.

Assessing iron oxide nanoparticle toxicity in vitro: current status and future prospects.

An overview is presented of different types of nanomaterials, focusing mostly on iron oxide nanoparticles, developed for biomedical research, and several key parameters are highlighted and novel methods suggested, emphasizing the importance of intracellular nanoparticle degradation and linking toxicity data to functional nanoparticle levels, which could help to advance any progress in this highly important research topic.

Assessing cytotoxicity of (iron oxide-based) nanoparticles: an overview of different methods exemplified with cationic magnetoliposomes.

The main focus is on comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the different assays, highlighting several common problems and presenting possible solutions to these problems as well as pointing out the high importance of the relationship between intracellular nanoparticle concentration and cytotoxicity.

Magnetic nanoparticles: an update of application for drug delivery and possible toxic effects

Current advances in MNPs for drug delivery and their possible organ toxicities associated with disturbance in body iron homeostasis are addressed.

Evaluation of iron oxide nanoparticle biocompatibility

In vivo exploration suggests that although γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles are rapidly cleared through the urine, they can lead to toxicity in the liver, kidneys and lungs, while the brain and heart remain unaffected.

The role of iron redox state in the genotoxicity of ultrafine superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

Coating-dependent induction of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles

Uncoated iron oxide (U-Fe3O4) NPs were found not to be cytotoxic (considering interference of NPs with proliferation test) or genotoxic under experimental conditions, whereas oleate-coatedIron oxide (OC-Fe 3O4), which was applied for both medical diagnostics and targeted drug delivery, were cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner and induced DNA damage, indicating genotoxicity potential.

Cellular responses to nanoparticles: Target structures and mechanisms

An integrated research protocol is proposed to identify fundamental cellular responses to NP in order to complement current toxicological screening strategies with a mechanism-based approach.