Effects of hot-water extracts from Ganoderma lucidum residues and solid-state fermentation residues on prebiotic and immune-stimulatory activities in vitro and the powdered residues used as broiler feed additives in vivo

Abstract

Large amounts of Ganoderma lucidum (GL) commercial products are provided in the worldwide market such as powders, tea bags, or capsules as dietary supplements which contained triterpenoids and/or polysaccharides. Therefore, it was estimated that several thousand tons of GL residues (GLR) are produced and discarded. For recycling uses, the aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of two hot-water extracts from GLR (HWP_GLR) and solid-state fermentation GLR inoculated with GL mycelia (HWP_GLRF) on the growths of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium longum. The RAW264.7 cells were used to investigate the effects of HWP_GLR and HWP_GLRF on nitric oxide productions, phagocytic activities against FITC-labeled E. coli, and to lower lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding capacities. The powders of GLR and GLRF were used as additives in the commercial feeds for feeding broiler chicks in vivo to evaluate the immune-stimulatory and prebiotic activities. HWP_GLR and HWP_GLRF with molecular size 5 to 8 kDa were showed to stimulate growths of L. rhamnosus and B. longum. It was found that in the presence of polymyxin B HWP_GLR and HWP_GLRF could stimulate nitric oxide productions, elevate phagocytic activities against FITC-labeled E. coli, and to lower lipopolysaccharide-binding capacities in RAW264.7 cells. The broiler chicks were selected for feedings in vivo. The 1-day-old chicks were fed commercial feeds for 1 week, and then were fed without or with 4 or 8 % of GLR and GLRF additives for 3 weeks. There was no significant weight difference among feeding groups. However, the phagocytosis and natural killer cytotoxicity in the peripheral bloods, and prebiotic activities of bifidobacteria in feces of GLR and/or GLRF groups were significantly different compared to the control (P < 0.05). The GLR, GLRF, and their hot-water extracts with beneficial activities could be processed as feed additives which could increase the waste-recycling.

DOI: 10.1186/s40529-015-0097-3

Extracted Key Phrases

8 Figures and Tables

Cite this paper

@inproceedings{Liu2015EffectsOH, title={Effects of hot-water extracts from Ganoderma lucidum residues and solid-state fermentation residues on prebiotic and immune-stimulatory activities in vitro and the powdered residues used as broiler feed additives in vivo}, author={Yuh-Hwa Liu and Yin-Shiou Lin and Kuan-Ling Lin and Yeh-Lin Lu and Chao-Hsiang Chen and Mei-Yin Chien and Huey-Fang Shang and Shyr-Yi Lin and Wen-Chi Hou}, booktitle={Botanical Studies}, year={2015} }