We performed hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAI) on 86 patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, 61 patients) or unresectable recurrent HCC after hepatectomy (25 patients). As drug therapy, 250 mg of 5-fluorouracil was injected daily for 14 days using a reservoir embedded in the subcutaneous layer. During this period, 0.4 mg/kg of doxorubicin and 0.12 mg/kg of mitomycin C suspended in Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide were also injected twice intra-arterially. This was defined as one course of HAI, and it was repeated every 3 months. In the patients with unresectable HCC, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 31.5%, 22.4%, and 10.7%, respectively, and the numbers of cases showing a complete response (CR), a partial response (PR), a minor response (MR), no change (NC), and progressive disease (PD) according to the Criteria for the Evaluation of the Clinical Effects of Solid Cancer Chemotherapy established by the Japan Society for Cancer Therapy were 1 (1.6%), 20 (32.8%), 5 (8.2%), 28 (45.9%), and 7 (11.5%), respectively. On the other hand, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates of the patients with unresectable recurrent HCC were 69.6%, 34.8%, and 14.9%, respectively. The rate of catheter patency after 1 year was 64.1%, and the mean catheter-patency period was 311.9 days. Patients in group A (CR+PR,n=21) survived significantly longer than those in group B (MR+NC+PD,n=40;P<0.05). In conclusion, since responders to HAI achieve longer survival than nonresponders, the selection of effective drugs is important for this therapy.