Effects of hand movement path on motor cortical activity in awake, behaving rhesus monkeys

  title={Effects of hand movement path on motor cortical activity in awake, behaving rhesus monkeys},
  author={Shraga Hocherman and Steven P. Wise},
  journal={Experimental Brain Research},
SummaryNeuronal activity was studied in the primary (M1), supplementary (M2), dorsal premotor (PMd), and ventral premotor (PMv) cortex of awake, behaving rhesus monkeys. The animals performed forelimb movements to three targets, each approached by three different types of trajectories. With one trajectory type, the monkey moved its hand straight to the target, with another, the path curved in a clockwise direction, and with a third, the path curved in a counter-clockwise direction. We examined… 

Distinct representations of planned reach trajectories in human premotor and posterior parietal cortex

It is shown that the recruitment of both areas in trajectory planning differs significantly, which implies that complex and computationally demanding reach planning is governed by a frontal pathway while a parietal route could warrant an alternative and faster way to put simple plans into action.

Strategy-Dependent Encoding of Planned Arm Movements in the Dorsal Premotor Cortex

The neural correlate of movement planning varied between subjects in a manner consistent with the use of different strategies to optimize task completion, manifested in the timing and strength of the information contained in the neural population code.

Distinct contributions of human posterior parietal and dorsal premotor cortex to reach trajectory planning

It is shown that the recruitment of both areas in trajectory planning differs significantly: PMd represented both straight and complex hand trajectories while SPL only those that led straight to the target, which suggests that while posterior parietal cortex only provides representations for simple, straight reaches, the complex and computationally demanding reach planning necessarily involves dorsal premotor cortex.

The roles of monkey M1 neuron classes in movement preparation and execution

Evidence is provided against an inhibitory “gate” for motor output in cortex by identifying a subpopulation likely to be enriched for inhibitory interneurons using their waveform shapes and finding that the firing rates of this subpopulation tended to increase during movement instead of decreasing as predicted by the M1 gating model.

Relationship between Unconstrained Arm Movements and Single-Neuron Firing in the Macaque Motor Cortex

The activity of single neurons in the monkey motor cortex was studied during semi-naturalistic, unstructured arm movements made spontaneously by the monkey and measured with a high resolution

Differential relation of discharge in primary motor cortex and premotor cortex to movements versus actively maintained postures during a reaching task

The results imply that the major contribution of PMd to this RT task occurred prior to the onset of movement itself, consistent with a role for PMd in the selection and planning of visually guided movements.

Effects of image motion in the dorsal premotor cortex during planning of an arm movement.

It is found that neuronal activity in the PMd predominantly reflected arm-image movement rather than the actual arm movement, and for half of PMd neurons, the activity differed depending on the target-capturing body-part defined in the right or left side of the arm image.

Preparatory activity in premotor and motor cortex reflects the speed of the upcoming reach.

It is concluded that delay-period preparatory activity robustly reflects a nonspatial aspect of the upcoming reach, however, it is unclear whether the recorded neural responses conform to any simple reference frame, intrinsic or extrinsic.

Human Somatosensory Cortex Is Modulated during Motor Planning

It is found through a convergence of experiments and analyses, that the planning of object manipulation tasks, in addition to modulating the activity in the motor cortex, changes the state of neural activity in different subfields of the human S1.


The goal of this study was to characterize the oscillatory activity within the caudal and rostral subdivisions of PMd when going from the most basic reaching movement to one that involves a simple dissociation between the actions of the eyes and hand.



Set-related neuronal activity in the premotor cortex of rhesus monkeys: effects of changes in motor set

  • S. WiseK. Mauritz
  • Biology, Psychology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1985
This hypothesis that the premotor cortex plays a role in motor preparation is tested in macaque monkeys by examining neuronal activity during an enforced, 1.5—3.0 s delay period between the presentation of an instruction for movement and the onset of that movement.

Neural representations of the target (goal) of visually guided arm movements in three motor areas of the monkey.

This study designed to determine whether the supplementary motor area, the primary motor cortex, and the putamen contain neural representations of the target or goal of a movement, independent of specific features of the movement itself.

A neurophysiological study of the premotor cortex in the rhesus monkey.

It is concluded that many premotor cortex neurons appear to reflect motor set and show activity patterns during and before the execution of an abstractly guided movement that are strikingly similar to what has been observed in association with movements made directly to visuospatial targets.

The involvement of monkey premotor cortex neurones in preparation of visually cued arm movements

Premotor cortex of rhesus monkeys: set-related activity during two conditional motor tasks

The present results accord with the hypothesis that set-related premotor cortex activity reflects aspects of motor preparation, and the vast majority (81%) of these 118 neurons showed no significant difference between the two tasks in set- related activity.

Making arm movements within different parts of space: dynamic aspects in the primate motor cortex

Results indicate that motor cortical cells can code direction of movement in a way which is dependent on the position of the arm in space, and movement population vectors computed from cell activity proved to be good predictors of movement direction regardless of where in space the movements were performed.

Cortical mechanisms subserving reaching.

Some principles of the cortical mechanisms subserving this function, as revealed by recording the impulse activity of neurons in motor cortex and area 5 of the posterior parietal cortex in behaving monkeys, are summarized.

Monkey primary motor and premotor cortex: single-cell activity related to prior information about direction and extent of an intended movement.

Behavioral data support a parametric conception of motor programming, i.e., that the programming of the different movement parameters results from assembling separate processes of different duration, compatible with the model in which programming processes are serially and hierachically ordered.

Anticipatory activity of motor cortex neurons in relation to direction of an intended movement.

Since motor cortex PTN axons end on alpha and gamma motoneurons and on interneurons of the spinal cord, changes of PTN activity with "intention" or "motor set" provide a mechanism for suprasegmental control and presetting of spinal cord reflex excitability specific to the nature of an impending movement.