Effects of halothane, sevoflurane and desflurane on the force-frequency relation in the dog heart in vivo.

PURPOSE Frequency potentiation is the increase in force of contraction induced by an increased heart rate (HR). This positive staircase phenomenon has been attributed to changes in Ca2+ entry and loading of intracellular Ca2+ stores. Volatile anesthetics interfere with Ca2+ homeostasis of cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that frequency potentiation is… CONTINUE READING