OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) therapy on infarct size and left ventricular function when used as an adjuvant therapy to primary angioplasty. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING Cardiac intensive care unit at a university hospital. PATIENTS Thirty-seven patients with acute myocardial infarction for whom primary angioplasty was indicated. INTERVENTIONS Eligible patients were randomized by a blinded pharmacist to GIK solution (30% glucose in water with insulin 50 U/L, and KCl 40 mM/L) vs. placebo at 1.5 mL/kg/hr for 24 hrs. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Tc 99m sestamibi myocardial scintigraphy was performed at admission and at 3 months. Primary end points were the changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and the size of salvaged myocardium. Baseline clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. At the 3-month follow-up, a significant overall decrease in infarct size (37 +/- 16% vs. 12 +/- 10%, p <.005) and an increase in LVEF (34 +/- 13% vs. 49 +/- 9%, p =.005) were observed. Patients randomized to GIK solution experienced a significant increase in their LVEF at 3 months (39 +/- 12 to 51 +/- 13, p =.002). Patients who received placebo had no significant differences between baseline and 3-month measurements (44 +/- 13 vs. 49 +/- 14, p = NS). There was a trend toward an increase in myocardial salvage in the GIK group, which did not reach statistical significance. When patients from both groups were compared directly, differences in LVEF improvement were no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS GIK solution did not improve LVEF or decrease the infarct size among patients undergoing primary angioplasty.