Neurons and glial cells in the brain are surrounded by a fractal environment. A fractal alkylketene dimmer (AKD) surface was shown to provide such a biomimetic environment for glial cell culture. However, little is known about the effects of fractal surface on the complexity of cell morphology. In particular, whether fractal surface induces glial cell differentiation remains to be elucidated. The present work, thus determined the fractal dimension (FD) of cell complexity with a geometrically calculational parameter, the expressions of GFAP gene and protein in C6 glioma cells on fractal AKD, non-fractal AKD and PLL-coated surfaces. Fractal surface suppressed the proliferation of glioma cell, and significantly increased the length and number of cell process. Furthermore, the enhanced values of FD were accompanied with the expressions of GFAP gene and protein, especially that of gene. However, cells on non-fractal and PLL surface proliferated gradually along with the culture time, showing the fibroblast-like morphology, and accompanied with the consistent expressions of GFAP gene and protein. These results suggested that C6 glioma cell differentiation can be induced by fractal AKD surface.