When uremic blood flows through dialyzers during hemodialysis, dialysis membrane surfaces are exposed to shear stress and internal filtration, which may affect the surface characteristics of the dialysis membranes. In the present study, we evaluated changes in the characteristics of membrane surfaces caused by shear stress and internal filtration using blood substitutes: water purified by reverse osmosis and 6.7 wt% dextran70 solution. We focused on the levels of a hydrophilic modifier, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), on the membrane surface measured by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Experiments involving 4 h dialysis, 0–144 h shear-stress loading, and 4 h dead-end filtration were performed using polyester-polymer alloy (PEPA) and polysulfone (PS) membranes. After the dialysis experiments with accompanying internal filtration, average PVP retention on the PEPA membrane surface was 93.7% in all areas, whereas that on the PS membrane surface was 98.9% in all areas. After the shear-stress loading experiments, PVP retention on the PEPA membrane surface decreased as shear-stress loading time and the magnitude of shear stress increased. However, with the PS membrane, PVP retention scarcely changed. After the dead-end filtration experiments, PVP retention decreased in all areas for both PEPA and PS membranes, but PVP retention on the PEPA membrane surface was lower than that on the PS membrane surface. PVP on the PEPA membrane surface was eluted by both shear stress and internal filtration, while that on the PS membrane surface was eluted only by internal filtration.