Effects of fasted vs fed‐state exercise on performance and post‐exercise metabolism: A systematic review and meta‐analysis

  title={Effects of fasted vs fed‐state exercise on performance and post‐exercise metabolism: A systematic review and meta‐analysis},
  author={T P Aird and Robert W Davies and Brian P. Carson},
  journal={Scandinavian Journal of Medicine \& Science in Sports},
  pages={1476 - 1493}
The effects of nutrition on exercise metabolism and performance remain an important topic among sports scientists, clinical, and athletic populations. [] Key Method A search was performed using the MEDLINE and PubMed search engines. The literature search identified 46 studies meeting the relevant inclusion criteria. The Delphi list was used to assess study quality. A meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed where appropriate. Findings indicated that pre-exercise feeding enhanced prolonged (P = .012…
What Should I Eat before Exercise? Pre-Exercise Nutrition and the Response to Endurance Exercise: Current Prospective and Future Directions
This review can help to guide athletes, coaches, and nutritionists in personalizing pre-exercise nutrition strategies, and for designing research studies to further elucidate the role of nutrition in endurance training adaptations.
Is exercise best served on an empty stomach?
There is evidence that overnight-fasted exercise in young, healthy men can enhance training-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle metabolic profile, and mitigate against the negative consequences of short-term excess energy intake on glucose tolerance compared with exercising in the fed-state.
Aerobic Exercise in the Fasted State: The Effects on Aerobic Capacity in Healthy Adults
There are numerous variables that can affect energy metabolism during aerobic exercise and possibly play a role in the increase of aerobic capacity. Dependence on fat oxidation such a factor and
Metabolic and Molecular Subacute Effects of a Single Moderate-Intensity Exercise Bout, Performed in the Fasted State, in Obese Male Rats
An acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise, when realized in fasting, may induce, in obese rats with metabolic dysfunctions, beneficial adaptations to their health, such as better biochemical and molecular adaptations that last for at least 12 h.
Effects of Feeding Time on Markers of Muscle Metabolic Flexibility Following Acute Aerobic Exercise in Trained Mice Undergoing Time Restricted Feeding
The results suggest that in young populations consuming a healthy diet and exercising, the timing of fasting may not substantially impact metabolic flexibility and running performance.
Effects of exercise and meal timing on energy metabolism
  • Kaito Iwayama
  • Education
    Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
  • 2018
This review aimed to verify the effect of exercise and meal timing on energy metabolism. Many people are exercising and playing sports in their own spare time. Although guidelines for daily exercise
Postexercise skeletal muscle signaling responses to moderate- to high-intensity steady-state exercise in the fed or fasted state.
Performing moderate- to high-intensity steady-state exercise in the fasted state increases systemic lipid availability, elevates phosphorylation of AMPKThr172 and CREBSer133, and augments PDK4 mRNA expression without corresponding increases in whole body fat oxidation and the mRNA expression of PPARGC1A.
Time‐restricted eating and concurrent exercise training reduces fat mass and increases lean mass in overweight and obese adults
The data support the use of TRE and concurrent exercise training as a short‐term dietary strategy for reducing fat mass and increasing lean mass in overweight and obese adults.
The acute effect of fasted exercise on energy intake, energy expenditure, subjective hunger and gastrointestinal hormone release compared to fed exercise in healthy individuals: a systematic review and network meta-analysis
FastEx + NoMeal appears to be the most effective strategy to produce a short-term decrease in energy intake, but also results in increased hunger and lowered energy expenditure, as well as the lowest energy expenditure and highest hunger.


Effects of aerobic exercise performed in fasted v. fed state on fat and carbohydrate metabolism in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis
It is concluded that aerobic exercise performed in the fasted state induces higher fat oxidation than exercise performedin the fed state.
Pre-Exercise Nutrition: The Role of Macronutrients, Modified Starches and Supplements on Metabolism and Endurance Performance
There is some evidence to suggest enhanced pre-exercise glycogen synthesis and benefits to metabolism during exercise during exercise, and various supplements also warrant possible inclusion into pre-race nutrition for endurance athletes.
Effects of pre-exercise ingestion of differing amounts of carbohydrate on subsequent metabolism and cycling performance
Mild rebound hypoglycaemia following pre-exercise glucose ingestion did not negatively affect performance, and Plasma insulin concentrations at the onset of exercise were significantly higher in MED and HIGH compared with LOW and PLAC and plasma glucose concentration was observed between the glucose trials at any time.
Pre-exercise carbohydrate and fat ingestion: effects on metabolism and performance
Although an increase in plasma insulin following carbohydrate ingestion in the hour before exercise inhibits lipolysis and liver glucose output, and can lead to transient hypoglycaemia during subsequent exercise in susceptible individuals, there is no convincing evidence that this is always associated with impaired exercise performance.
Effect of moderate incremental exercise, performed in fed and fasted state on cardio-respiratory variables and leptin and ghrelin concentrations in young healthy men.
It is concluded that plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations have no significant effect on the fasting-induced attenuation of heart rate during exercise, and it is postulated that this effect is caused by increased plasma norepinephrine concentration, leading to the increase in systemic vascular resistance and baroreceptor mediated vagal stimulation.
Pre-exercise feeding does not affect endurance cycle exercise but attenuates post-exercise starvation-like response.
The effects of ingesting a mixed-snack food (CB), fructose (FRU), or placebo (PBO) prior to exercise (70% peak VO2) on the metabolic response during and after cycle exercise were studied in eight
Effects of timing of pre-exercise nutrient intake on glucose responses and intermittent cycling performance
Pre-exercise nutrient feedings at 15 minutes or 60 minutes before exercise did not affect intermittent cycling performance or blood glucose concentration and these results suggest that the time of ingestion, within 1 hour prior to exercise, of a complex carbohydrate similar in composition and volume does not impact on performance.
Acute effects of exercise timing and breakfast meal glycemic index on exercise-induced fat oxidation.
  • Patrick BennardÉ. Doucet
  • Medicine, Education
    Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme
  • 2006
Total fat oxidized during exercise, and for 2 h after exercise, was greatest when morning exercise was performed in the fasted state, independently of meal GI.
Beneficial metabolic adaptations due to endurance exercise training in the fasted state.
F is more effective than CHO to increase muscular oxidative capacity and at the same time enhances exercise-induced net IMCL degradation and prevented drop of blood glucose concentration during fasting exercise.
Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on exercise-induced alterations in metabolic gene expression.
Glucose ingestion attenuated the exercise-induced increase in PDK-4 and UCP3 mRNA and PGC-1 mRNA, suggesting that glucose availability can modulate the effect of exercise on metabolic gene expression.