Effects of eyelid closure, blinks, and eye movements on the electroencephalogram

@article{Iwasaki2005EffectsOE,
  title={Effects of eyelid closure, blinks, and eye movements on the electroencephalogram},
  author={Masaki Iwasaki and Christoph Kellinghaus and Andreas V. Alexopoulos and Richard C. Burgess and Arun N. Kumar and Yanning H. Han and Hans L{\"u}ders and R. John Leigh},
  journal={Clinical Neurophysiology},
  year={2005},
  volume={116},
  pages={878-885}
}
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TLDR
It is concluded that elevation of the eye ball (Bell's phenomenon) does not occur during short blinks and only in about half of the subjects during voluntary unrestrained prolonged lid closure, and the possibility that the transient eye movements during blinks are caused primarily by a mechanical interaction between the lids and the eye is supported.
Upper eyelid movements measured with a search coil during blinks and vertical saccades.
TLDR
In general, lid movements were faster than those reported previously in the literature, but there was considerable intersubject variability, which suggests caution when using normative data to interpret abnormal lid motion for clinical purposes.
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TLDR
The authors found that the basic eyelid movements, blinks, and saccadic lid movements, can be uniquely and reliably characterized by their amplitude-maximum velocity relationships.
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There was a close correspondence between the metrics of the lid movement and those of the concomitant eye movement during vertical fixation, smooth pursuit, and saccades in both man and monkey.
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Single-unit activity in the caudal central nucleus of the oculomotor complex in monkeys trained to make vertical saccadic, smooth-pursuit, and fixation eye movements suggests that levator and superior rectus motoneurons receive input signals that originate from a common source, but that the signals are processed differently to deal with the different loads facing these muscles.
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