Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review
BACKGROUND Increasing exercise intensity has been shown to reduce energy intake in men. OBJECTIVE The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise intensity on energy intake in women. DESIGN Thirteen moderately active (peak oxygen uptake: 44.0 +/- 4.7 mL . kg(-1) . min(-1)) women [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.2 +/- 2.4; age: 22.2 +/- 2.0 y] were subjected to 3 experimental conditions: control with no exercise and 2 equicaloric (350 kcal) low- (LIE) and high- (HIE) intensity exercise sessions at 40% and 70% of peak oxygen uptake, respectively. After each session, the participants ate ad libitum from buffet-type meals at lunch and dinner and ate snacks during the afternoon and evening. Visual analogue scales were used to rate appetite. RESULTS More energy was ingested at lunchtime after the HIE session than after the control session (878 +/- 309 and 751 +/- 230 kcal, respectively; P = 0.02). Relative energy intake (postexercise energy intake corrected for the energy cost of exercise above the resting level) at lunch was lower after the LIE session than after the control session (530 +/- 233 and 751 +/- 230 kcal, respectively; P < 0.001) and was lower after the HIE session than after the control session (565 +/- 301 and 751 +/- 230 kcal, respectively; P < 0.01). Similarly, daily energy intake tended to increase during the HIE session relative to that during the control session. No treatment effect was found for appetite scores throughout the experiment. CONCLUSION The results suggest that HIE increases energy intake in women.