The effect of equol injection in ovo on lipid metabolism and hepatic lipogenic gene expression in broilers.
Estrogen administration (25 mg/kg body weight) in chicks resulted in a marked elevation of plasma very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol (TG). To determine whether the VLDL produced from estrogen (E)-treated birds is catabolized differently from VLDL of control birds, VLDL-TG kinetic studies were conducted. The [14C]TG-labeled VLDL was prepared by intravenous injection of [14C]palmitate into control and E-treated chicks. The [14C]TG-labeled VLDL prepared from the control (C-VLDL-TG) and E-treated chicks (E-VLDL-TG) were then reinjected into fed and fasted chicks with or without E-treatment. The metabolism of VLDL-TG was found to be different, depending upon whether its donor was the control of E-treated chick. The fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of E-VLDL-TG was significantly (P less than 0.05) lower than that of C-VLDL-TG in both fed and fasted chicks. Compared to the fed state, fasting resulted in significantly (P less than 0.05) increased FCRs of both C-VLDL-TG and E-VLDL-TG. The turnover rate of VLDL-TG was significantly higher in E-treated chicks than in their respective controls. In addition, the endogenously produced VLDL-TG differed in their affinity for lipoprotein lipase in which E-VLDL-TG had a higher Km value for the enzyme than C-VLDL-TG. On agarose gel electrophoresis, the VLDL of E-treated chicks showed beta-mobility and it eluted into two peaks on agarose gel filtration, whereas VLDL of control chicks had a pre-beta-mobility on the former and it eluted into a single peak on the latter. SDS-gel electrophoresis also revealed that the apolipoprotein composition of VLDL from control and E-treated chicks was notably different from each other. Present findings suggest that estrogen treatment results not only in an increased secretion of VLDL but also in the production of different VLDL particles, thereby affecting their clearance from the plasma.