Policosanol is a mixture of long-chain primary aliphatic saturated alcohols. Previous studies in humans and animals have shown that these compounds improved lipoprotein profiles. However, more-recent placebo-controlled studies could not confirm these promising effects. Octacosanol (C28), the main component of sugarcane-derived policosanol, is assumed to be the bioactive component. This has, however, never been tested in an in vivo study that compared individual policosanol components side by side. Here we present that neither the individual policosanol components (C24, C26, C28, or C30) nor the natural policosanol mixture (all 30 mg/100 g diet) lowered serum cholesterol concentrations in LDL receptor knock-out (LDLr(+/-)) mice. Moreover, there was no effect on gene expression profiles of LDLr, ABCA1, HMG-CoA synthase 1, and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in hepatic and small intestinal tissue of female LDLr(+/-) mice after the 7 week intervention period. Finally, none of the individual policosanols or their respective long-chain fatty acids or aldehydes affected de novo apoA-I protein production in vitro in HepG2 and CaCo-2 cells. Therefore, we conclude that the evaluated individual policosanols, as well as the natural policosanol mixture, have no potential for reducing coronary heart disease risk through effects on serum lipoprotein concentrations.