Bilateral electrical lesioning of the hippocampal CA3 region (HCA3-EL) or anterior commissura hippocampi (ACHF-EL) caused marked elevations in plasma basal levels of insulin. 2 weeks later, fasting blood glucose levels were also augmented with decreased glucose tolerance. In contrast, the secretory response of pancreatic B cells to glucose stimulation was markedly enhanced. Following intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), the relative amounts of glucagon-like and insulin-like immunoreactants were reduced in the pancreatic islets of both HCA3-EL and ACHF-EL rats in comparison with the controls. In the HCA3-EL group, the relative amounts of somatostatin-like immunoreactants and gross numbers of such immunostained cells in islets were also decreased as compared with the control. No difference was seen in pancreatic-polypeptide-like immunoreactivities as assessed by immunohistochemistry plus microphotometry method. The above results suggest strongly that HCA3 and ACHF exert a tonic inhibitory action on the insulin secretion in the rat.