Effects of dust scattering in expanding spherical nebulae


The mean intensity of planetary nebulae with an expanding atmosphere is modeled by considering dusty and dust-free atmospheres. The bulk matter density is determined from the adopted velocity field through the equation of continuity. The gas is assumed to consist of hydrogen and helium and the gas-to-dust mass ratio is taken to be 3×10. The Rayleigh phase… (More)


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