Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations

  title={Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations},
  author={Richard B. Kreider},
  journal={Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry},
  • R. Kreider
  • Published 1 February 2003
  • Medicine
  • Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Creatine has become a popular nutritional supplement among athletes. Recent research has also suggested that there may be a number of potential therapeutic uses of creatine. This paper reviews the available research that has examined the potential ergogenic value of creatine supplementation on exercise performance and training adaptations. Review of the literature indicates that over 500 research studies have evaluated the effects of creatine supplementation on muscle physiology and/or exercise… 

Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update

Although presently ingesting creatine as an oral supplement is considered safe and ethical, the perception of safety cannot be guaranteed, especially when administered for long period of time to different populations (athletes, sedentary, patient, active, young or elderly).

Sports Applications of Creatine

In regard to athletes, creatine has continually proved itself to be one of the most effective and safe nutritional supplements to increase strength, muscle mass, and performance.

Beyond muscles: The untapped potential of creatine.

Creatine Use in Sports

While creatine appears to be safe and effective for particular settings, whether creatine supplementation leads to improved performance on the field of play remains unknown.


Creatine supplementation may alter skeletal muscle directly, by increased muscle glycogen and phosphocreatine, faster phosphocreatedine resynthesis, increased expression of endocrine and growth factor mRNA, or indirectly, through increased training volume.

Creatine supplementation improves performance, but is it safe? Double-blind placebo-controlled study.

Despite the expected weight increase, the creatine monohydrate supplementation is safe for health and no detrimental effects on different organs and physiological systems were observed in the cohort of volunteers.

Creatine for Exercise and Sports Performance, with Recovery Considerations for Healthy Populations

The purpose of this review was to summarize the existing literature surrounding the efficacy of creatine supplementation on exercise and sports performance, along with recovery factors in healthy populations.

International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine

An update to the current literature regarding the role and safety of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine is provided and the position stand of International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) is updated.

Creatine Supplementation

Creatine monohydrate is a dietary supplement that increases muscle performance in short-duration, high-intensity resistance exercises, which rely on the phosphocreatine shuttle for adenosine



Oral Creatine Supplementation and Athletic Performance: A Critical Review

  • M. JuhnM. Tarnopolsky
  • Medicine
    Clinical journal of sport medicine : official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
  • 1998
In laboratory settings, creatine supplementation is ergogenic in repeated 6–30-second bouts of maximal stationary cycling sprints and suggests that creatine improves strength, possibly by increasing myofibrillar protein synthesis; however, more study is needed to prove this.

Creatine supplementation as an ergogenic aid for sports performance in highly trained athletes: a critical review.

The widespread use of creatine ingestion to improve competition performance does not seem to be justified and the potential interest of creatine supplementation for elite athletes could be related to an increased ability to perform repeated high-intensity exercise bouts, either during training or during competition in sports in which repeated efforts are required.

Long-Term Effects of Creatine Monohydrate on Strength and Power

The results indicate that 10 weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementation while participating in a resistance training program significantly increases strength and power indices compared with placebo supplementation, and indicates that lower doses of Creatine monohydrate may be ingested, without a short-term, large-dose loading phase, for an extended period to achieve significant performance enhancement.

Potential benefits of creatine monohydrate supplementation in the elderly

  • M. Tarnopolsky
  • Medicine, Biology
    Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care
  • 2000
Future studies will be required to address the potential for creatine monohydrate supplementation to attenuate age-related muscle atrophy and strength loss, as well as to protect against age-dependent neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.

Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training.

It is concluded that long-term creatine supplementation enhances the progress of muscle strength during resistance training in sedentary females.

The Effect of Creatine Supplementation on Anaerobic Performance in Moderately Active Men

The data suggest that Cr supplementation is ineffective in increasing performance in repeated, short-term, high-intensity anaerobic running.

Creatine monohydrate supplementation enhances high-intensity exercise performance in males and females.

It is concluded that short-term Cr supplementation can increase indices of high-intensity exercise performance for both males and females.

Creatine: a review of efficacy and safety.

Performance and muscle fiber adaptations to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance training.

Creatine supplementation enhanced fat-free mass, physical performance, and muscle morphology in response to heavy resistance training, presumably mediated via higher quality training sessions.

Creatine supplementation. Its role in human performance.